National Honours

Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO)

 

This Order is bestowed as the personal gift of Her Majesty The Queen and is administered by the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood at St. James's Palace in London, England. In Canada, the three lower levels of the Order (Commander, Lieutenant and Member) are part of the Canadian Honours System and information is available at the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall. For more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca

 

Commander of the Royal Victorian Order

Sacrifice Medal (SM)

The Sacrifice Medal was created in the context of increased casualties in overseas operations to fulfill the desire of Canadians and the Government to provide formal recognition, through the award of an official medal emanating from the Crown, to those who die as a result of military service or are wounded by hostile action. This honour replaces the Wound Stripe.

Sacrifice Medal (SM)

Gulf and Kuwait Medal

The Gulf and Kuwait Medal recognizes the participation of CF members deployed or in direct support of the operations against Iraq during the Gulf war. The medal is awarded to those employed during the build up of troops before the beginning of hostilities, and a bar is awarded for those deployed during the actual war.

Gulf and Kuwait Medal

Somalia Medal

The Somalia medal recognises the participation of CF members that have taken part in the coalition mission in Somalia to help stabilise the country from civil war, and to help deliver humanitarian aid.

Somalia Medal

South-West Asia Service Medal (SWASM)

The South-West Asia Service Medal recognizes the participation of CF members deployed or in direct support of the operations against terrorism in South-West Asia. The medal is awarded to those employed in direct support, and the AFGHANISTAN bar is added for those deployed into the theatre of operations.

South-West Asia Service Medal (SWASM)

General Campaign Star – ALLIED FORCE (GCS-AF)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize - in a timelier manner - those who serve in operations in the presence of an armed enemy. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the General Campaign Star and General Service Medal - with their theatre or service specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

General Campaign Star – ALLIED FORCE (GCS-AF)

General Campaign Star – SOUTH-WEST ASIA (GCS-SWA)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize - in a timelier manner - those who serve in operations in the presence of an armed enemy. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the General Campaign Star and General Service Medal - with their theatre or service specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

General Campaign Star – SOUTH-WEST ASIA (GCS-SWA)

General Campaign Star – EXPEDITION (GCS-EXP)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize - in a timelier manner - those who serve in operations in the presence of an armed enemy. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the General Campaign Star and General Service Medal - with their theatre or service specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

General Campaign Star – EXPEDITION (GCS-EXP)

General Service Medal – ALLIED FORCE (GSM-AF)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who provide direct support to operations in the presence of an armed enemy. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the General Campaign Star (GCS) and General Service Medal (GSM) - with their theatre or service specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

General Service Medal – ALLIED FORCE (GSM-AF)

General Service Medal – SOUTH-WEST ASIA (GSM-SWA)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a more timely manner those who provide direct support to operations in the presence of an armed enemy. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the General Campaign Star and General Service Medal - with the addition of individual operational bars - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

General Service Medal – SOUTH-WEST ASIA (GSM-SWA)

General Service Medal – EXPEDITION (GSM-EXP)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who provide direct support to operations in the presence of an armed enemy. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the General Campaign Star (GCS) and General Service Medal (GSM) - with their theatre or service specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

General Service Medal – EXPEDITION (GSM-EXP)

Operational Service Medal – South-West Asia (OSM-SWA)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who serve in or provide support to overseas operations and for which no other medals, such as United Nations or NATO medals, are available. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the Operational Service Medal - with its theatre or task specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

Operational Service Medal – South-West Asia (OSM-SWA)

Operational Service Medal – Sierra Leone (OSM-SL)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who serve in or provide support to overseas operations and for which no other medals, such as United Nations or NATO medals, are available. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the Operational Service Medal - with its theatre or task specific

ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

Operational Service Medal – Sierra Leone (OSM-SL)

Operational Service Medal – Haiti (OSM-H)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who serve in or provide support to overseas operations and for which no other medals, such as United Nations or NATO medals, are available. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the Operational Service Medal - with its theatre or task specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

Operational Service Medal – Haiti (OSM-H)

Operational Service Medal – Sudan (OSM-S)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who serve in or provide support to overseas operations and for which no other medals, such as United Nations or NATO medals, are available. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the Operational Service Medal - with its theatre or task specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

Operational Service Medal – Sudan (OSM-S)

Operational Service Medal – HUMANITAS (OSM-HUM)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who serve in or provide support to overseas operations and for which no other medals, such as United Nations or NATO medals, are available. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the Operational Service Medal - with its theatre or task specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

Operational Service Medal – HUMANITAS (OSM-HUM)

Operational Service Medal – EXPEDITION (OSM-EXP)

This general service award has been created as a means to recognize in a timelier manner those who serve in or provide support to overseas operations and for which no other medals, such as United Nations or NATO medals, are available. Rather than creating a new honour for each new Canadian Forces operation as it arises, the Operational Service Medal - with its theatre or task specific ribbons - can be awarded in future to honour participation in any operation that meets the criteria.

Operational Service Medal – EXPEDITION (OSM-EXP)

Special Service Medal (SSM)

The Special Service Medal (SSM) was created to recognize members of the Canadian Forces who are taking part in activities and operations under exceptional circumstances.

Special Service Medal (SSM)

Canadian Peacekeeping Service Medal (CPSM)

The prestigious Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to all United Nations Peacekeepers in 1988 in recognition of their collective efforts in the cause of peace. This inspired the creation of the Canadian Peacekeeping Service Medal (CPSM) to acknowledge the unique contribution to peace that Canadian peacekeepers have made since 1947.

Canadian Peacekeeping Service Medal (CPSM)

UN Emergency Force (UNEF)

Through the efforts of Canada's External Affairs Minister, Lester B. Pearson, the UN General Assembly agreed to its first peacekeeping force to secure peace in the region (previous operations had been only observer forces). Under the command of a Canadian, MGen Eedson Louis Millard BURNS, (OC) DSO OBE MC, the UNEF, on 07 November 1956, was given a mandate to secure the removal of Israeli, British and French troops from the Suez canal zone and the Gaza Strip and to maintain peace in the area. The first Canadian troops arrived in Egypt on 24 November 1956, and Egypt abruptly asked them to leave in May 1967, leading to the six-day war between Israel and Egypt. Thirty-two Canadians lost their lives serving with this force.

UN Emergency Force (UNEF)

UN Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine (UNTSO)

A force to observe and maintain the cease-fire and general armistice agreements between Israel, Egypt, Lebanon and Syria, following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

UN Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine (UNTSO)

UN Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan & Pakistan (UNGOMAP)

To assist the Representative of the Secretary-General to lend his good offices to the parties in ensuring the implementation of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan and, in this context, to investigate and report possible violations of any of the provisions of the agreements from May 1988 to March 1990.

UN Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan & Pakistan (UNGOMAP)

UN Military Observer Group in India & Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

The mission was established in January 1948 to supervise the cease-fire between India and Pakistan, in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

UN Military Observer Group in India & Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

UN Organization in Congo (ONUC)

ONUC was established initially in July 1960 to ensure the withdrawal of Belgian forces, to assist the Government in maintaining law and order, and to provide technical assistance. The function of ONUC was subsequently modified to include maintaining the territorial integrity and the political independence of the Congo, preventing the occurrence of civil war, and securing the removal from the Congo of all foreign military, paramilitary and advisory personnel not under the United Nations Command, and all mercenaries. On completion of the mandate, the Mission was withdrawn in June 1964.

UN Organization in Congo (ONUC)

UN Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea (UNTEA)

Established in October 1962 to maintain peace and security in the territory under the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority established by agreement between Indonesia and the Kingdom of the Netherlands. UNSF monitored the cease-fire and helped ensure law and order during the transition period, pending transfer to Indonesia. Upon completion of the mandate, the Mission was withdrawn in April 1963.

UN Temporary Executive Authority in West New Guinea (UNTEA)

UN Yemen Observer Mission (UNYOM)

Established in July 1963 to observe and certify the implementation of the disengagement agreement between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic, this Mission ended its activities and was withdrawn in September 1964.

UN Yemen Observer Mission (UNYOM)

UN Forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

In the interest of international peace and security, the Mission was established in March 1964 to use its best efforts to prevent the recurrence of fighting between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and, as necessary, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to normal conditions. Since the hostilities of 1974, the mandate has included supervising the cease-fire and maintaining a buffer zone between the lines of the Cyprus National Guard and of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot forces.

UN Forces in Cyprus (UNIFICYP)

UN India Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM)

The UN Security Council established UNIPOM to ensure supervision of the cease-fire and the withdrawal of all armed personnel from the Rann of Kutch to Kashmir, a 1,000-mile segment of the western India-Pakistan border. In February 1966, following a peace conference in Tashkent, the two armies withdrew to their own sides of the border and UNIPOM was disbanded the next month.

UN India Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM)

UN Emergency Force Middle East (UNEFME)

Established in October 1973 to supervise the cease-fire between Egyptian and Israeli forces and, following the conclusion of the agreements of 18 January 1974 and 4 September 1975, to supervise the redeployment of Egyptian and Israeli forces and to control the buffer zones established under those agreements. The mandate for this Mission expired in July 1979 and the troops were withdrawn.

UN Emergency Force Middle East (UNEFME)

UN Disengagement Observation Force (UNDOF)

Established in June 1974 to supervise the cease-fire between Israel and Syria; to supervise the disengagement (redeployment) of Syrian and Israeli forces; and, to establish a buffer zone, as provided in the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces of 31 May 1974. The Mission continues to perform its functions effectively with the cooperation of the parties.

UN Disengagement Observation Force (UNDOF)

UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

Following the increase of violence along the border between Israel and Lebanon which culminated by the invasion of Lebanon by Israel on 14 March 1978, this Mission was established in March 1978 to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon, to restore international peace and security, and to assist the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area.

UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

UN Military Observation Group in Iran – Iraq (UNIIMOG)

This Mission was established in August 1988 to verify, confirm and supervise the cease-fire and withdrawal of all forces to the internationally recognized boundaries agreed to between Iran and Iraq.

UN Military Observation Group in Iran – Iraq (UNIIMOG)

UN Transition Assistance Group (Namibia) (UNTAG)

The mission was established to ensure the early independence of Namibia through free and fair elections under the supervision and control of the United Nations. The Mission was established April 1989 with a mandate for one year and finally closed in March 1990.

UN Transition Assistance Group (Namibia) (UNTAG)

UN Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA)

Established in December 1989 to conduct on-site verification of termination of aid to irregular forces and insurrectionist movements, and the non-use of the territory of one State for attacks on other States in the countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The Mission terminated in January 1992.

UN Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA)

UN Iraq – Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM)

This mission was established in April 1991, to monitor a demilitarized zone established along the boundary between the States of Iraq and Kuwait and the Khor Abdullah and to retrieve non-exploded ammunition and de-mine the area.

UN Iraq – Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM)

UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

UNAVEM I was to confirm the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola and to monitor the cease-fire agreement between the government of Angola and the Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). UNAVEM II began following a peace accord which was signed in Lisbon in May 1991 and Canadian officers joined the observers to ensure the final withdrawal of Cuban and South African forces.

UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

UN Mission for the Referendum In Western Sahara (MINURSO)

This mission was established to hold a referendum for determining the future of the region and to provide movement control. The major issue was to decide if the people of the Western Sahara wanted independence or integration with Morocco. Following the election, the mandate was to monitor the cease-fire.

UN Mission for the Referendum In Western Sahara (MINURSO)

UN Observation Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)

This Mission was established on 20 May 1991 to monitor all agreements between the Government of El Salvador and Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional (FMLN). This Mission was subsequently expanded in January 1992 to assume the verification of all aspects of the cease-fire and separation of forces and the agreement on the National Civil Police which saw ONUSAL monitoring the maintenance of public order during the transitional period while a new National Civil Police was set up.

UN Observation Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)

UN Protection Force (Yugoslavia) (UNPROFOR)

UNPROFOR was established in February 1992 as an interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslavian crisis. The role of the UN troops was to ensure that areas designated as "UN Protected Areas" (UNPA) became and remained demilitarized and that all persons residing in these areas were protected from fear of armed attack. The role of UN police monitors was to ensure that local police forces carried out their duties without discriminating against persons of any nationality or abusing any human rights. The force also assisted the humanitarian agencies of the UN in the return of all displaced persons who so desired.

There were several extensions of the original UNPROFOR covering the following purposes: reopening of the Sarajevo airport for humanitarian purposes; establishing a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport; protection of convoys of released detainees in Bosnia and Herzegovina as requested by the International Committee of the Red Cross; monitoring arrangements for the complete withdrawal of the Yugoslavian Army from Croatia; the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula and the removal of heavy weapons from neighbouring areas of Croatia and Montenegro (Res 779,1992); monitoring compliance with the ban on military flights (Res 781,1992); and the establishment of the United Nations presence in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

UNPROFOR also monitored the implementation of a cease-fire agreement requested by the Bosnian Government and Bosnian-Croat Forces in February 1994. In addition, UNPROFOR monitored cease-fire arrangements, negotiated between the Bosnian Government and Bosnian Serb forces, which became effective on 1 January 1995.

On 31 March 1995, the Security Council decided to restructure UNPROFOR, replacing it with three separate but interrelated peacekeeping operations: UNCRO (United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia), UNPREDEP (United Nations Preventive Deployment Force) under the joint theatre headquarters known as UNPF (United Nations Peace Forces) located in Zagreb. Eventually, following positive developments in the former Yugoslavia and the establishment of two new United Nations Missions in Bosnia -Herzegovina and Croatia,  UNPF-HQ was phased out in January 1996.

UN Protection Force (Yugoslavia) (UNPROFOR)

UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC)

This mission was established in October 1991 to assist the Cambodian Parties to facilitate communications between the military headquarters of the four Cambodian Parties in matters relating to the cease-fire and to undertake a mine-awareness training role. Subsequently, this mandate was extended to include training in mine clearance and the initiation of a de-mining program. The mandate for this Mission expired in March 1992 with the establishment of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia.

UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC)

UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)

UNTAC was established in February 1992, incorporating the existing Mission, UNAMIC. The mandate for this Mission relates to human rights, the organisation and conduct of free and fair elections, military arrangements, civil administration, the maintenance of law and order, the repatriation and resettlement of the Cambodian refugees and displaced persons, and the rehabilitation of essential Cambodian infrastructures during the transitional period. After the elections, the Mission was closed on 15 November 1993 and replaced by the United Nations Military Liaison Team (UNMLT). Consisting of 20 military observers, their task was to maintain close liaison with the Cambodian Government, to report to the Secretary-General on matters effecting security in Cambodia and to assist the Government in dealing with residual military matters related to the Paris Agreement. UNMLT was established for a single period of six months. Military Observers are eligible to receive the UNTAC medal.

UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)

UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM)

UNOSOM was established on 24 April 1992. In accordance with the agreements reached with the two main Somali factions in Mogadishu, the cease-fire in the capital was to be monitored by a group of 50 unarmed, uniformed United Nations military observers. The observers were to be deployed along the demarcation line separating Mogadishu into two zones. Regarded as humanitarian assistance, the security personnel envisaged in the agreements were to provide protection and security for United Nations personnel, equipment and supplies at the port of Mogadishu and escort deliveries of humanitarian supplies from there to distribution centres in the city and its immediate environs. They were also to provide security for United Nations personnel, equipment and supplies at the airport in Mogadishu. They were to provide the United Nations’ convoys of relief supplies with a sufficiently strong military escort to deter attack; they were authorized to fire in self-defence as a last resort if deterrence should not prove effective. On 28 August, the Security Council, authorized an increase in strength of UNOSOM by four additional UN security units, for the protection of the humanitarian convoys and distribution centres throughout Somalia. Several of the Somali de facto authorities refused to agree to the deployment of United Nations troops and only one battalion and military observers were deployed to Mogadishu. Relief ships were blocked from docking and even shelled. Air and seaports came under fire resulting in the non-delivery of relief supplies to areas where the need was most acute. On 3 December 1992, the Security Council authorized the use of all necessary means to establish, as soon as possible, a secure environment for humanitarian and relief operations in Somalia. The first elements of the Unified Task Force, spearheaded by the United States of America, were deployed in Mogadishu on 9 December 1992. UNOSOM ended on the 30th April 1993.

UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM)

UN Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)

The Mission was established 13 October 1992 to monitor and verify the cease-fire, the separation and concentration of forces, their demobilization and the collection, storage and destruction of weapons; to monitor and verify the complete withdrawal of foreign forces; to monitor and verify the disbanding of private and irregular armed groups; to authorize security arrangements for vital infrastructures; to provide security for the United Nations and other international activities in support of the peace process, especially in the corridors; to provide technical assistance and monitor the entire electoral process; to coordinate and monitor all humanitarian assistance operations, in particular those related to refugees, internally displaced persons, demobilized military personnel and the affected local population and to facilitate the implementation of the general peace agreement for Mozambique. Upon completion of the task, the Mission was terminated in January 1995.

UN Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)

UN Observer Mission Uganda – Rwanda (UNOMUR)

This mission was established on 22 June 1993 to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border and to verify that no military assistance reached Rwanda. The focus was placed primarily on transit by transport of lethal weapons and ammunition across the border, as well as any other material which could be of military use. Upon completion of the task, the Mission was terminated in October 1994.

UN Observer Mission Uganda – Rwanda (ONOMUR)

UN Assistance Mission For Rwanda (UNAMIR)

This mission was established 5 October 1993 to the monitor cease-fire, security situation, process of repatriation of refugees, to assist with mine clearance, the coordination of humanitarian assistance and to contribute to the security of the city of Kigali. UNAMIR also contributed to the security of personnel of the International Tribunal for Rwanda and of human rights offices in Rwanda and assisted in the establishment and training of a now, integrated national police force. The UNAMIR mandate came to end in March 1996.

UN Assistance Mission For Rwanda (UNAMIR)

UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)

This mission established to help implement certain provisions of the Governors Island Agreement signed by the Haitian parties on 3 July 1993. In 1993, UNMIH’s mandate was to assist in modernizing the armed forces of Haiti and establishing a new police force. That mandate could not be carried out due to the non-cooperation of the Haitian military authorities. On the 31 July 1994 the UN approved the establishment of an advance team of UNMIH to institute the appropriate means of coordination with the multinational force, to carry out the monitoring of the operations of the force, to assess requirements and to prepare for the deployment of UNMIH upon completion of the mission of the multinational force. The Mission terminated in June 1996.

UNMIH was succeeded in July 1996 by the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH). Its mandate expired on 31 July 1997. The Security Council established the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) 28 June 1996. In setting up UNSMIH, the Council underlined the need to support the commitment of the Government of Haiti to maintain the secure and stable environment established by the Multinational Force in Haiti.

UNTMIH was the third in the series of UN Peacekeeping Operations in Haiti. It was established the 30 July 1997 for a single four-month period ending on 30 November 1997. It was established to assist the Government of Haiti by supporting and contributing to the professionalization of the Haitian National Police (HNP).

UNTMIH was succeeded in December 1997 by the United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH). The Security Council established MIPONUH on the 28 November 1997. Unlike the three previous Missions, MIPONUH had no military component. Its mandate was to continue the work of the United Nations to support the Haitian National Police and to contribute to its professionalization.

MIPONUH was succeeded by the new International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH) on 16 March 2000. Its mandate is to consolidate the results achieved by MIPONUH and its predecessor Missions of the United Nations in Haiti. MICAH is tasked with further promoting human rights and reinforcing the institutional effectiveness of the Haitian police and the judiciary, and with coordinating and facilitating the international community's dialogue with political and social actors in Haiti.

UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)

United Mission for the verification of Human Rights in Guatemala (MINUGUA)

In September 1994, the General Assembly decided to establish a Human Rights Verification in Guatemala acting on a recommendation by the Secretary-General that such a mission could make a contribution to a persisting pattern of human rights abuse. The mission terminated in May 1997.

United Mission for the verification of Human Rights in Guatemala (MINUGUA)

UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)

In 1996, the Central African Republic was shaken by a politico-military crisis that stemmed to a large extent from widespread public discontent over social and economic problems. On 25 January 1997, an agreement was signed in Bangui, and from 31 January 1997 an inter-African force in the Central African Republic was established in order to restore peace and security in the Central African Republic by monitoring the implementation of the Bangui agreements.

UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)

UN Preventive Deployment Force (Macedonia) (UNPREDEP)

This mission was established in March 1995 which decided that the activities of UNPROFOR, within the former Republic of Macedonia, shall be known as UNPREDEP. The mandate was essentially preventive, to monitor and report any development in the border areas that could undermine the confidence and stability in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia or threaten its territory. The Mission terminated in February 1999.

UN Preventive Deployment Force (Macedonia) (UNPREDEP)

UN Mission in Bosnia – Herzegovina (UNMIBH)

This Mission was established in 15 December 1995 for a period of one year from the transfer of authority from the United Nations Protection Force (UNPF) to the Implementation Force (IFOR). The main tasks of the United Nations civilian police force include: monitoring, observing and inspecting law enforcement activities; training and advising law enforcement personnel; facilitating, within the International Police Task Force mission of assistance, the parties’ law enforcement activities; and ensuring the existence of conditions for free and fair elections.

UN Mission in Bosnia – Herzegovina (UNMIBH)

UN Military Observer Mission in Prevlaka (Croatia) (UNMOP)

This observer Mission was established in January 1996. The mandate was to monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula in accordance with Resolutions 779 (1992) and 981 (1995).

UN Military Observer Mission in Prevlaka (Croatia) (UNMOP)

UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

UNMIK was established on 10 June 1999 by adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution 1244. The goal of the mission is the resolution of the grave humanitarian situation in Kosovo, through the implementation of return of refugees and prevention of the escalation of conflict between parties in the region.

UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone/UN Mission In Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL/UNAMSIL)

UNOMSIL's purpose is to monitor the military and security situation in the country as a whole. As security conditions permit; monitor the disarmament and demobilization of former combatants concentrated in secure areas of the country; assist in monitoring respect for international humanitarian law, including at disarmament and demobilization sites, where security permit; advise, in coordination with other international efforts, the Government of Sierra Leone and local police officials on police practise, training, re-equipment and recruitment, in particular on the need to respect internationally accepted standards of policing in democratic societies.

UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone/UN Mission In Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL/UNAMSIL)

UN Assistance Mission East Timor/UN Transitional Authority East Timor (UNAMET/UNTEAT)

The main goals of the Mission are to provide security and maintain law and order throughout the territory of East Timor, to establish an effective administration, to assist in the development of civil and social service and to support capacity-building for self-government.

UN Assistance Mission East Timor/UN Transitional Authority East Timor (UNAMET/UNTEAT)

UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) / UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)

The main goals of the Mission are to monitor the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement and to investigate violations of the ceasefire, to work with the parties to obtain the release of all prisoners of war and to supervise and verify the disengagement and redeployment of the parties' forces. As of 1 July 2010, the mission was renamed to reflect the new mandate relating, among other things, to the protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders under imminent threat of physical violence and to support the Government of the DRC in its stabilization and peace consolidation efforts.

UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC)

UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)

The main goals of the Mission are to monitor the cessation of hostilities, to assist in ensuring the observance of the security commitments agreed by the parties, to monitor and verify the redeployment of Ethiopian forces from positions taken, to monitor the positions of Ethiopian forces once redeployed and the positions of Eritrean forces.

UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)

UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

In February 2004 anti-Aristide forces began a march on Port-au-Prince, leading to the overthrow of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. At the new government's request, the UN sent in an interim force to re-establish peace. MINUSTAH followed, with a mandate to re-establish a secure environment, promote human rights and assist in the delivery of humanitarian aid.

UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

UN Operation in Ivory Coast (ONUCI)

This mission was established under UN Security Council resolution 1528, of Feb 27, 2004, to monitor the cease-fire and movements of armed groups, support disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation and resettlement, protect UN Personnel, institutions and civilians, support humanitarian assistance and the implementation of the peace process, provide assistance in the field of human rights and restore a civilian policing presence in the country et re-establish the authority of the judiciary and the rule of law throughout Cote d’Ivoire.

UN Operation in Ivory Coast (ONUCI)

UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under UN Security Council Resolution 1590 of March 24, 2005, with a mandate to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and to perform functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and protection and promotion of human rights.

UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

The United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) was authorized on 25 August 2006 by UN Security Council Resolution 1704. This mission is to support the Government of Timor-Leste in consolidating stability, enhancing a culture of democratic governance, and facilitating political dialogue among Timorese stakeholders, in their efforts to bring about a process of national reconciliation and foster social cohesion.

United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

United Nations - African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)

The Security Council resolution 1769 of 31 July 2007 and the communiqué of the 79th meeting of the African Union Peace and security Council of June 2007 established the United Nations - African Union Hybrid Mission in DARFUR. The mission, which stood up at El Fasher, Sudan, on 1 January 2008 and replaced the African Mission in Sudan (AMIS), is mandated to help the Security Council achieve an overall objective of supporting the implementation of the DPA and subsequent agreements, prevent disruption of their implementation, prevent armed attacks, and protect civilians without prejudice to the responsibility of the Government of Sudan. UNAMID will also contribute to security for humanitarian assistance, monitor and verify implementations of agreements, assist an inclusive political process, and contribute to the promotion of human rights and rule of law.

United Nations - African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)

UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)

The United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan was established on 8 July 2011 by the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1996 (2011). The UNMISS mandate includes support for peace consolidation, fostering longer-term state building and economic development, support for the government of the Republic of South Sudan in exercising its responsibilities for conflict prevention, mitigation and resolution and protect civilians, and support the government of the Republic of South Sudan in developing its capacity to provide security, to establish rule of law, and to strengthen the security and justice sectors.

UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)

UN Special Service Medal (UNSSM)

This medal was established in June 1995 to recognize those personnel serving the United Nations in capacities other than established peace-keeping missions and United Nations Headquarters.

UN Special Service Medal (UNSSM)

UN Headquarters Medal (UNHQ)

From time to time countries may provide, on a secondment basis, staff trained, military officers to serve in staff positions at United Nations Headquarters in New York to assist with the planning and implementation of new missions.

UN Headquarters Medal (UNHQ)

NATO Medal for Former Yugoslavia (NATO-FY)

On 14 December 1995 North Atlantic Council launched the largest military operation ever undertaken by the Alliance, Operation Joint Endeavour. Based on UN Security Council Resolution 1031, NATO was given the mandate to implement the military aspects of the Peace Agreement. A NATO-led multinational force, called the Implementation Force (IFOR), started its mission on 20 December 1995. IFOR was given a one-year mandate.

After the peaceful conduct of the September 1996 elections, IFOR successfully completed its mission of implementing the military annexes of the General Framework Agreement for Peace. However, it was clear that much remained to be accomplished on the civil side and that the political environment would continue to be potentially unstable and insecure. On 25-26 September, one week after the Bosnian elections NATO Defence Ministers concluded that the Alliance needed to re-assess how it might continue to provide support for the establishment of a secure environment after the end of IFOR's mandate in December. The role of IFOR (Operation Joint Endeavour) was to implement the peace. The role of SFOR (Operation Joint Guard / Operation Joint Forge) is to stabilise the peace. The difference between the tasks of IFOR and SFOR is reflected in their names.

12 December 1996, SFOR was authorised to implement the military aspects of the Peace Agreement as the legal successor to IFOR. Like IFOR, SFOR operates under Chapter VII of the UN Charter (peace enforcement).

NATO Medal for Former Yugoslavia (NATO-FY)

NATO Medal for Kosovo (NATO-K)

The conflict in the Kosovo province of the Yugoslav Federal Republic started at the beginning of 1998 with the armed incidents between the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and the Yugoslav military and police force. The armed conflict caused a humanitarian catastrophe which had to be urgently addressed by a consorted action of the broad international community. From the very beginning NATO took an active part in the peace campaign as well as contributing to Kosovo's reconstruction process after the conflict has been terminated with the help of the international community.

NATO Medal for Kosovo (NATO-K)

NATO Medal for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (NATO-FYROM)

Insurgents agreed to the weapons collection plan and to voluntarily hand-in their weapons. Part of this plan was a list of weapons and ammunition which the insurgents committed to provide as one of their obligations as a confidence-building measure and one element of a broader peace plan proposed by President Trajkovski. TFH accepted what was passed in within the established timeframe. In accordance with the agreement between the ethnic Albanian insurgents and the government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*, it was the responsibility of the insurgents to de-mine weapons caches and bring any hidden weapons to the collection sites. TFH’s only mandate was to collect weapons that were voluntarily turned in by the armed extremists; the responsibility to ensure a safe and secure environment remained with the government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

(1) Turkey Recognizes Republic of Macedonia with its constitutional name.

NATO for Former Republic of Macedonia (NATO-FYROM)

Article 5 NATO Medal for Operation "Eagle Assist"

Operation Eagle Assist began on 12 October 2001 following the North Atlantic Council’s decision on 4 October to take measures to implement Article 5 of the Washington Treaty. This was done following the terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001 and the mission’s aim was to assist US Forces to control North American airspace. The mission was deemed complete on 16 May 2002.

Article 5 NATO Medal for Operation

Article 5 NATO Medal for Operation "Active Endeavour"

On 12 September 2001 NATO implemented Article 5 of the Washington Treaty following the 11 September attacks against the United States. Following US requests, NATO subsequently agreed to implement 8 specific measures to expand the options available in the campaign against terrorism. These measures included the deployment of elements of NATO’s Standing Naval Forces to the Eastern Mediterranean in order to provide a NATO presence and demonstrate resolve.The NATO Operation ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR formally began on 26 October 2001, when the activation order was issued. However, patrolling in the Eastern Mediterranean had already started on 6 October, when the Standing Naval Force Mediterranean was dispatched to conduct maritime presence operations in support of the international campaign against terrorism.

Article 5 NATO Medal for Operation

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for Operations in the Balkans

On 14 December 1995, the North Atlantic Council launched Operation JOINT ENDEAVOUR, the largest military operation ever undertaken by the Alliance. Based on UN Security Council Resolution 1031, NATO was given the mandate to implement the military aspects of the Peace Agreement. A NATO-led multinational force, called the Implementation Force (IFOR), started its mission on 20 December 1995. IFOR was given a one-year mandate.

After the peaceful conduct of the September 1996 elections, IFOR successfully completed its mission of implementing the military annexes of the General Framework Agreement for Peace. However, it was clear that much remained to be accomplished on the civil side and that the political environment would continue to be potentially unstable and insecure. On 25 & 26 September, one week after the Bosnian elections, NATO Defence Ministers concluded that the Alliance needed to re-assess how it might continue to provide support for the establishment of a secure environment after the end of IFOR's mandate in December. The role of IFOR (Operation JOINT ENDEAVOUR) was to implement the peace. The role of SFOR (Operation JOINT GUARD / Operation JOINT FORGE) is to stabilise the peace. The difference between the tasks of IFOR and SFOR is reflected in their names.

On 12 December 1996, SFOR was authorised to implement the military aspects of the Peace Agreement as the legal successor to IFOR. Like IFOR, SFOR operates under Chapter VII of the UN Charter (peace enforcement).

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for Operations in the Balkans

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for service with the NATO Training Implementation Mission and the NATO Training Mission in Iraq (NTM-IRAQ)

Following the US-led campaign in Iraq to topple the regime of dictator Saddam Hussein, NATO undertook the task to help train the new Iraqi Armed Forces through its NATO Training Implementation Mission (NTIM-I) and NATO Training Mission (NTM-I) in Iraq.

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for service with the NATO Training Implementation Mission and the NATO Training Mission in Iraq (NTM-IRAQ)

Non-Article 5 Medal for NATO Logistical Support to the African Union Mission in Sudan

NATO deployed troops in Sudan and certain other African countries to provide logistical support to the African Union Mission in Sudan.

Non-Article 5 Medal for NATO Logistical Support to the African Union Mission in Sudan

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for North Atlantic Council Approved NATO operations and activities in relation to Africa

NATO deployed troops to approved NATO operations and activities in relation to Africa.

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for North Atlantic Council Approved NATO operations and activities in relation to AFRICA

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for Service on NATO Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR - LIBYA

In the spring of 2011, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya in response to events during the Libyan civil war. The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was implemented to create a Libyan no-fly zone and to take all necessary measures to prevent attacks on civilians by the government forces of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. The NATO Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR formally began on 23 March 2011 and ended on 31 October 2011.

Non-Article 5 NATO Medal for Service on NATO Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR - LIBYA

International Commission for Supervision and Control Indo-China (ICSC)

The ICSC Cambodia monitored the Geneva Accords and helped the Khmer resistance forces disband and return home and the Viet Minh to leave the country. Much of the work was done from 1954 to 1955 and Canada had only token representation after 1958. The commission withdrew completely in 1969.

International Commission for Supervision and Control Indo-China (ICSC)

International Commission of Control and Supervision Vietnam (ICCS)

Note that although this is a military honour, the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall is responsible for the administration of the replacements.

The 1,160 personnel of the commission were from Canada, Hungary, Indonesia and Poland and their role was to monitor the cease-fire in South Vietnam as per the Paris Peace Conference. The Commission arranged the release and exchange of more than 32,000 prisoners of war.

International Commission of Control and Supervision Vietnam (ICCS)

Multinational Force and Observers (SINAI) (MFO)

The force was to observe the 1979 Camp David accord between Israel and Egypt and was set up by the United States.

Multinational Force and Observers (SINAI) (MFO)

European Community Monitor Mission (Yugoslavia) (ECMMY)

To monitor the cease-fire agreement in the former Yugoslavian countries and to report on violations of the cease-fire agreements.

European Community Monitor Mission (Yugoslavia) (ECMMY)

International Force East Timor (INTERFET)

The Government of Australia established the International Force East Timor (INTERFET) to provide security and maintain law and order throughout the territory of East Timor, and to establish an effective administration of civil and social service and to support capacity-building for self-government.

International Force East Timor (INTERFET)

European Security and Defence Policy Service Medal (ESDP)

The European Union (EU) established this medal on 1 January 2003 to provide recognition to those who serve in EU-led crisis management operations.

European Security and Defence Policy Service Medal (ESDP)

Polar Medal

This honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall. For more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca

Polar Medal

Sovereign’s Medal for Volunteers

This honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall. For more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca

Sovereign’s Medal for Volunteers

Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal

The Queen’s Silver Jubilee medal commemorates the 25th anniversary of the accession of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second to the throne. National organizations in every important field of endeavour, including the professions, education and arts, veterans' groups, sports associations, philanthropic and charitable bodies and welfare services were asked to participate in submitting nominations.All members of the Order of Canada, Order of Military Merit and recipients of the Canadian Bravery Decorations received the Queen’s Silver Jubilee medal. This medal is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall.

Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal

125 Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal

The medal was awarded to those making a significant contribution to their fellow citizens, their community, or to Canada. Persons deceased prior to 01 January 1992 were not eligible for consideration. This commemorative medal program is now closed. This medal is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall.

125 Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal

Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal

The Queen’s Golden Jubilee medal commemorates the 50th anniversary of the accession of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second to the throne. This commemorative medal program is now closed. This medal is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall.

Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal

Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Medal

The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal commemorates the 60th anniversary of the Accession of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second to the Throne as Queen of Canada. The medal is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall.

Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Medal

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Long Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

http://www.rcmp.ca/

 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Long Service Medal

Canadian Forces' Decoration (CD)

The Canadian Forces' Decoration is awarded to officers and Non-Commissioned Members of the Canadian Forces who have completed twelve years of service. The decoration is awarded to all ranks, who have a good record of conduct.

Canadian Forces' Decoration (CD)

Police Exemplary Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall, for more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca/

 

Police Exemplary Service Medal

Corrections Exemplary Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall, for more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca/

 

Corrections Exemplary Service Medal

Fire Service Exemplary Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall, for more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca/

 

Fire Service Exemplary Service Medal

Canadian Coast Guard Exemplary Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall, for more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca/

 

Canadian Coast Guard Exemplary Service Medal

Emergency Medical Services Exemplary Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall, for more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca/

 

Emergency Medical Services Exemplary Service Medal

Peace Officer Exemplary Service Medal

 

This Honour is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall, for more information, click on the link below.

http://www.gg.ca/

 

Peace Officer Exemplary Service Medal

Queen's Medal for Champion Shot

The Queen's Medal for Champion Shot was originally created under the British Honours System. In June 1968, after the unification of the Canadian Forces, Her Majesty the Queen gave her approval to the granting in Canada of the British Queen's Medal for Champion Shot. It wasn't until 1991 that the Privy Council for Canada advised that there should be created and instituted in Canada the Queen's Medal for Champion Shot. On August 28, 1991, Letters Patent were signed by Her Majesty to create the Queen's Medal for Champion Shot in Canada. Note that although this is a military honour, the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall is responsible for its administration.

Queen's Medal for Champion Shot

Service Medal of the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

This Honour is administered by the Order of St. John. The Department of National Defence is providing this basic information until the Order of St. John has the official details available on the Order's own site.

Service Medal of the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

Commissionaires Long Service Medal

This Medal is administered by the Canadian Corps of Commissionaires. The Department of National Defence is providing this basic information until the Corps has the official details available on their own site.

Commissionaires Long Service Medal

Mention in Dispatches

Members of the Canadian Forces on active service and other individuals working with or in conjunction with the Canadian Forces on or after November 1, 1990 are eligible for the award of the Insignia.

Mention in Dispatches

Maple Leaves

A Maple Leaf is worn on the undress ribbons to denote the level of membership in the Order of Canada, the second award of a decorations, the award or a theatre bar or to denote a second or subsequent bar to a general service award.

Maple Leaves

Numerals

Numerals denote additional tours of duty on a particular mission for UN and some NATO medals.

Numerals

Rosette

Worn on the Canadian Forces' Decoration (CD) undress ribbon to denote the award of each clasp to the decoration.

Rosette

Chief of the Defence Staff Commendation

The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) Commendation is awarded by the Chief of the Defence Staff to recognize deeds or activities beyond the demand of normal duty.

Chief of the Defence Staff Commendation

Canadian Forces Medallion for Distinguished Service

The Canadian Forces Medallion for Distinguished Service (CFMDS) is awarded by the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) on behalf of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) to recognize distinguished or outstanding service performed by persons other than active military personnel or by civilian groups.

Canadian Forces Medallion for Distinguished Service

Memorial Cross

The Memorial Cross is granted by Her Majesty’s Canadian Government as a memento of personal loss and sacrifice in respect of military personnel who lay down their lives for their country.

Memorial Cross

Canadian Forces’ Unit Commendation

The Canadian Forces’ Unit Commendation is a group award created to recognize distinguished service by a military unit.

Canadian Forces’ Unit Commendation

Memorial Scroll

The Memorial Scroll is presented by Her Majesty’s Canadian Government to commemorate the sacrifice of military personnel who lay down their lives for their country.

Memorial Scroll

Memorial Bar

The Memorial Bar is presented by Her Majesty’s Canadian Government to commemorate the sacrifice of military personnel who lay down their lives for their country.

Memorial Bar

Memorial Ribbon

The Memorial Ribbon is presented by Her Majesty’s Canadian Government as a memento of personal loss and sacrifice in respect of military personnel who lay down their lives for their country.

Memorial Ribbon

Dag Hammarskjöld Medal

The Dag Hammarskjöld Medal is presented by the United Nations to the families of those who gave their lives in the service of the United Nations.

Dag Hammarskjöld Medal
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