Life After Service Survey 2016

Citation:Van Til LD, Sweet J, Poirier A, McKinnon K, Sudom K, Dursun S, Pedlar D. Well-Being of Canadian Regular Force Veterans, Findings from LASS 2016 Survey. Charlottetown PE: Veterans Affairs Canada. Research Directorate Technical Report, 23 June 2017.

Executive Summary

The Life After Service Studies (LASS) program of research is designed to further understand the transition from military to civilian life and ultimately improve the health of Veterans in Canada. LASS partners are Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC), the Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed Forces (DND/CAF), and Statistics Canada. LASS 2016 expands on the earlier studies from 2010 and 2013 by including family content and a longitudinal component in two major studies: the survey of health and well-being, and the record linkage for pre- and post-release income trends. This technical report provides initial cross-sectional findings for Regular Force Veterans from the 2016 survey. Additional analysis will be covered in subsequent reports.

LASS 2016 survey data was collected by telephone in February and March 2016 by Statistics Canada interviewers who obtained a 73% response rate. Results describe Veterans who released (at post-entry ranks) from the CAF Regular Force between 1998 and 2015.

Findings indicate that 52% of Veterans reported an easy adjustment to civilian life, while 32% reported difficulty. Officers had a lower rate of difficult adjustment (17%), compared to 29% of Senior Non-Commissioned Members (SrNCM) and 39% of Junior Non-Commissioned Members (JrNCM). Veterans with recent releases (between 2012 and 2015) had a higher rate of difficult adjustment (42%), compared to earlier releases between 1998 and 2012 (29%). Compared to those with earlier releases, these recently-released Veterans had higher rates of service in Afghanistan, fair or poor self-rated mental health and less than 10 years of military service, all factors associated with difficult adjustment.

Veterans reported chronic conditions, including arthritis (29%), depression (21%), anxiety (15%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (14%), at higher prevalences than Canadians of comparable age and sex. SrNCM had the highest rate of arthritis (40%), and JrNCM had the highest rates of depression (24%), anxiety (18%), and PTSD (18%). Veterans also reported higher rates than Canadians for hearing problems, pain, and activity limitations. Since LASS 2013, the trend for chronic conditions has been increasing, although not statistically significant.

Most Veterans were employed (65%). SrNCM had a lower employment rate (57%) compared to Officers (64%), and JrNCM (70%). The unemployment rate for Veterans was 8%, similar to Canadians of comparable age and sex. Non-labour force activities for Veterans included retirement (16%), on disability (8%), and training (5%). Since LASS 2013, the trend for non-labour force activities has been increasing, although not statistically significant.

Some Veterans experienced low income (4%). This was lower than Canadians of comparable age and sex (14%), and has not changed since LASS 2013. JrNCM had the highest rate (6%). Most Veterans were satisfied with their finances (69%), and has decreased since LASS 2013 (74%). Officers had a higher satisfaction rate (85%) compared to SrNCM (75%), and JrNCM (60%).

LASS 2016 included new content on families. When asked about the effect their release had on the family, most Veterans reported that the transition was easy for their partner (57%) and their children (60%). However, 28% of Veterans indicated their partners had difficulty with their release, and 17% reported their children had difficulty with their release.

LASS findings have provided evidence to inform the efforts of both VAC and DND/CAF to support transition to civilian life. LASS 2016 findings will continue to contribute to improvements to programs, benefits, communications and outreach, to ultimately improve the health and well-being of Veterans in Canada.

Introduction

The Life After Service Studies (LASS) program of research is designed to enhance understanding of the transition from military to civilian life and ultimately improve the health of Veterans in Canada (VanTil 2011). LASS partners are Veterans Affairs Canada, the Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed Forces and Statistics Canada.

LASS includes two major studies: the survey of health and well-being, and the record linkage for pre- and post-release income trends. LASS 2016 expands on the earlier studies in 2010Footnote 1 and 2013Footnote 2. LASS 2010 studied former Regular Force personnel who released from service during 1998-2007. LASS 2013 studied both Regular Force Veterans and Primary Reserve Force Veterans. LASS 2016 includes new family content and longitudinal design methods in both major studies.

VeteransFootnote 3 in Canada are former officers or non-commissioned members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), Regular or ReserveFootnote 4. As of March 2016, there were about 670,000 Veterans living among the general population in Canada. Of these, about 600,000 served after 1953.Footnote 5

This report provides cross-sectional findings for Regular Force Veterans from the 2016 survey. The indicators can contribute to VAC’s domains of well-being. The objective of this report is to describe the health and well-being of the 60,000 Regular Force Veterans who released from service (at post-entry ranks) during 1998 to 2015.

Methdods

LASS 2016 survey design incorporated both cross-sectional and longitudinal design. The cross-sectional design represents Veterans who released from the Regular Force between 1998 and 2015. The longitudinal design follows Veterans of the Regular and Reserve Forces that participated in LASS 2013. Longitudinal results will be described in a subsequent report.

The LASS 2016 cross-sectional survey design describes Veterans who released from the Regular Force between 1998 and 2015. To incorporate design changes that include new content, entry ranks wereFootnote 6 excluded from the survey. Statistics Canada removed out-of-scope records for those identified with a residence in the three northern Territories or outside Canada, in an institution, death, or re-enrollment in CAF.

The LASS 2016 survey was stratified into three groups by rankFootnote 7 at release:

  • Officers,
  • Senior non-commissioned members (SrNCM),
  • Junior non-commissioned members (JrNCM).

Survey data was collected over a 6 week period in February and March 2016 by Statistics Canada interviewers using the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview. Survey questions for LASS 2016Footnote 8 are similar to LASS 2013 and used Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) modules where possible. New content was added to describe the Veterans’ families. Figure 1 shows the sample design, 73% response rate, and 91% agreed to share their data with VAC and DND.

LASS 2016 survey used stratified survey design as well as inclusion of the 2013 survey cohort and oversampling releases since the 2013 survey. This complex design requires all survey estimates and analyses to use sample weights, similar to the methodology of LASS 2013Footnote 9. These weights were calculated by Statistics Canada to incorporate the unequal probabilities of selection, eligibility, non-response, and sharing. This report applied cross-sectional share weights using Stata SVY commands, and excluded missing responses from the denominator.

Figure 1. LASS 2016 Cross-sectional Sample

*Source: VAC Facts & Figures, March 2016

LASS 2016 indicators of well-being are defined in Appendix 1. Analysis in this report describes Veterans in 2016 in a series of tables:

  • Appendix 2 lists the indicators by the three rank groups,
  • Appendix 3 lists the indicators by three age groups,
  • Appendix 4 lists the indicators by the three LASS cycles in 2010, 2013, and 2016. This comparison used only post-entry rank releases for all 3 cycles. Confidence intervals were produced by Stat SVY commands and will differ from those produced using Statistics Canada bootstrap weights. Confidence intervals that do not overlap were considered statistically significant. Additional analysis is required to account for differences in age, sex, and other factors, and to take into account the dependence of the 2013 and 2016 samples.
  • Appendix 5 lists the indicators by two periods of release: LASS 2016 recent release (2012 to 2015), and LASS 2016 earlier release (1998 to 2012). For comparison LASS 2013 is also listed (1998 to 2012).
  • Appendix 6 lists the indicators by 2016 compared to Canadian data. Most of the Canadian comparators were from the most recent Canadian Community Health Survey (2013-14), age-sex adjusted to the Veteran population (who are predominantly younger and male).

Strengths of the LASS 2016 survey include the use of DND administrative data to identify Veterans and the use of Statistics Canada resources to survey participants and protect their confidentiality, and achieve a high response rate. The survey content used validated questions, mostly from national Canadian population health studies. Limitations of this report include the cross-sectional design that does not provide evidence about causal relationships between factors such as military service or VAC programs and well-being outcomes, but does allow quantification of the strength of association. Findings cannot necessarily be generalized to all Veterans; however the findings of this report are representative of Regular Force Veterans who released in 1998 to 2015.

Demographics

The average age of Regular Force Veterans participating in LASS 2016 was 48 years (see Table 1). JrNCM were the youngest (42 years), compared to SrNCM (55 years) and Officers (55 years). The majority of Regular Force Veterans were male (88%) and married or common-law (77%) at the time of the survey.

The highest level of education attained at the time of the survey is described in Table 1. Overall, 17% of Regular Force Veterans had a university degree. Officers had the highest rate of university graduation (75%), compared to JrNCM (6%) and SrNCM (4%).

Table 1. Demographic indicators, by Rank Group
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
< 30
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
F
8%
18%
38%
35%
F
2%
18%
51%
29%
14%
32%
24%
27%
37%
8%
19%
21%
37%
16%
Gender Male
Female
88%
12%
90%
10%
86%
14%
88%
12%
Marital status Married/Common-law
Widowed/Separated/Divorced
Single, never married
88%
8%
5%
83%
11%
5%
70%
11%
20%
77%
11%
13%
Education Less than high school graduation
High school graduation
Post-secondary graduation
University degree
F
12%
13%
75%
6%
54%
37%
4%
4%
45%
45%
6%
4%
42%
37%
17%

Since LASS 2013, the age of participants has increased (see Appendix 4), this is likely the result of longitudinal sample design. Appendix 3 lists the indicators by three age groups. The trend for gender, marital status, and a university degree have not changed (see Appendix 4).

Compared to Canadians of similar age and sex, Veterans report higher rates of married or common-law (77% vs. 73%), and lower rates of post-secondary education (54% vs. 65%), see Appendix 6.

The large differences in the age and sex distribution of the Veteran population compared to the Canadian population require comparisons that adjust for age and sex.

Military Characteristics

The majority of Regular Force Veterans had service in the Army (52%), 31% in the Air Force, and 18% in the Navy (see Table 2). JrNCM had the highest rate of service in the Army (61%), compared to SrNCM (42%) and Officers (39%).

About half of Veterans had more than 20 years of military service, 54% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 2). JrNCM had the lowest rate (25%), compared to Officers (73%) and SrNCM (91%). This pattern across rank groups was also observed for the rate of deployment during their military service.

Table 2. Military Characteristics, by Rank Group Indicator Category Officers
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
Service Environment Air*
Land*
Sea*
41%
39%
20%
37%
42%
22%
24%
61%
15%
31%
52%
18%
Enrolment Era 954-1975
1976-1990
1991-2000
2001-2015
28%
50%
10%
12%
27%
65%
6%
F
F
35%
19%
44%
14%
47%
13%
26%
Length of Service < 10 years
10 to 19 years
> 20 years
14%
13%
73%
2%
7%
91%
53%
22%
25%
31%
16%
54%
Release Type Voluntary
Involuntary
Medical
84%
F
15%
71%
F
28%
63%
8%
29%
69%
5%
26%
Deployment Deployed during military service 77% 90% 64% 74%

* also known as Air Force, Army, Navy.

Since LASS 2013, most military characteristics have not changed (see Appendix 4). The trend for medical releases has been increasing.

Health

Self-rated health of very good or excellent was reported by 46% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 3). SrNCM had the lowest rate (38%), compared to JrNCM (44%) and Officers (62%). This pattern across rank groups was also observed for diabetes, bowel disorders, heart disease, chronic pain, activity limitations, and needing help with activities of daily living.

Self-rated mental health of very good or excellent was reported by 56% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 3). JrNCM had the lowest rate (50%), compared to SrNCM (55%) and Officers (74%). This pattern across rank groups was also observed for depression, anxiety, asthma, TBI effects, moderate psychological distress, probable PTSD symptoms, and suicidal ideationFootnote 10.

Table 3. Health Indicators, by Rank Group
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
Self-Rated health Very good or excellent 62% 38% 44% 46%
Self-Rated mental health Very good or excellent 74% 55% 50% 56%
Chronic Conditions Arthritis
Depression
Anxiety
PTSD
Diabetes
Bowel disorders
Asthma
Heart disease
TBI effects
28%
11%
6%
8%
5%
6%
5%
6%
F
40%
20%
14%
18%
12%
8%
6%
8%
4%
23%
24%
18%
18%
5%
6%
7%
F
5%
29%
21%
15%
16%
7%
7%
6%
5%
4%
Hearing Problem Has hearing problem 11% 19% 8% 12%
Chronic Pain Has chronic pain 32% 48% 39% 41%
Activity Limitations Often restricted activity 21% 34% 28% 29%
ADL Needs help with at least one daily activity 14% 23% 21% 20%
Psychological distress Moderate or severe distress
(K-10 score 15-40)
7% 16% 21% 17%
PC-PTSD Screen Probable PTSD (3+ symptoms) 9% 18% 22% 18%
BMI Obese 23% 33% 28% 29%
Suicidal Ideation 12-Month Ideation 4% 7% 10% 8%

The prevalence of most chronic health conditions increase with age, however the mental health conditions are most prevalent in mid-life (see Appendix 3). Chronic health conditions are associated with chronic painFootnote 11 and with activity limitationsFootnote 12.

Since LASS 2013, the trend for chronic conditions has been increasing, although not statistically significant (see Appendix 4). Veterans with recent releases (between 2012 and 2015) had a lower rate of excellent/very good mental health (51%), compared to earlier releases between 1998 and 2012 (see Appendix 5).

For most health indicators, Veterans reported higher prevalences than Canadians of comparable age and sex (see Appendix 6). There are multiple hypotheses for the higher prevalence of mental health disorders in Veterans that span their life course before, during, and after serviceFootnote 13. Additional health indicators can be derived from the survey data (see Table 4). These include SF-12 categoriesFootnote 14Footnote 15, comorbidity by count of conditionsFootnote 16 and a composite indicator to describe a comprehensive picture of the full spectrum of mental health problemsFootnote 17. Different measures of hearing problems have also been measuredFootnote 18.

Prevalence of having a regular medical doctor was 83% (see Table 4). Differences by province were not statistically significant (see Fig 2), and the trend was for lower prevalence for the more recently released Veterans.

Figure 2. Prevalence of having a regular medical doctor, LASS 2016

Table 4. Additional Health Indicators, by LASS cycle
Indicator Category LASS 2010 LASS 2013 LASS 2016
Age Mean years 46.3 46.8 48.1
Quality of Life (PCS) PCS, Mean 46.2 (45.9, 46.6) 46.8 (46.2, 47.4) 48.3 (47.8, 48.9)
SF-12 60+
SF-12 50-59
SF-12 40-49
SF-12 30-39
SF-12 < 30
1.7% (1.2, 2.4)
49.6% (47.7, 51.4)
20.2% (18.7, 21.9)
15.8% (14.6, 17.2)
12.6% (11.7, 13.7)
4.1% (3.1, 5.4)
48.6% (46.1, 51.1)
20.5% (18.5, 22.5)
14.8% (13.1, 16.6)
12.2% (10.6, 13.9)
5.4% (4.3, 6.8)
48.6% (46.0, 51.1)
23.0% (21.0, 25.2)
14.9% (13.4, 16.7)
8.0% (6.9, 9.3)
Quality of Life (MCS) MCS, Mean 51.6 (51.2, 52.0) 51.2 (50.6, 51.8) 50.7 (50.1, 51.3)
SF-12 60+
SF-12 50-59
SF-12 40-49
SF-12 30-39
SF-12 < 30
15.3% (13.9, 16.8)
55.7% (53.8, 57.7)
12.6% (11.3, 14.0)
9.5% (8.5, 10.6)
6.9% (6.1, 7.9)
21.3% (19.3, 23.3)
44.9% (42.4, 47.5)
16.8% (14.7, 18.6)
9.9% (8.4, 11.6)
7.4% (6.1, 8.9)
19.8% (18.0, 21.8)
45.5% (43.0, 48.0)
16.6% (14.7, 18.6)
10.9% (9.4, 12.5)
7.3% (6.0, 8.7)
Physical Health Condition (PHC) Any PHC* 75.6% (73.7, 77.4) 69.4% (67.0, 71.8) 70.6% (68.1, 72.9)
Musculoskeletal (back problem, arthritis)
Cardiovascular (high BP, heart dis, stroke)
Gastrointestinal (ulcers, bowel disorders)
Respiratory (asthma, COPD)
Diabetes
Cancer
Urinary
Central Nervous System (migraine, dementia, TBI effects)
Obese
53.6% (51.6, 55.5)
23.8% (22.2, 25.5)
12.1% (11.0, 13.4)
8.7% (7.6, 9.9)
6.3% (5.4, 7.3)
1.4% (1.0, 1.9)
-
-
29.8% (28.0, 31.6)
49.1% (46.6, 51.6)
21.9% (20.0, 23.9)
8.9% (7.6, 10.3)
8.0% (6.7, 9.4)
6.7% (5.6, 8.0)
1.7% (1.3, 2.3)
3.2% (2.5, 4.2)
16.9% (15.0, 18.9)
27.4% (25.2, 29.7)
50.8% (48.3, 53.3)
23.0% (21.1, 25.1)
9.6% (8.3, 11.0)
8.3% (7.0, 9.8)
7.2% (6.2, 8.5)
2.6% (2.0, 3.4)
4.1% (3.3, 5.0)
16.6% (14.8, 18.6)
28.8% (26.6, 31.1)
Mental Health Condition (MHC) Any MHC 25.8% (24.2, 27.3) 25.4% (23.2, 27.7) 30.3% (29.0, 32.7)
Mood disorder
Anxiety Disorder
PTSD
-
11.2% (10.2, 12.4)
12.8% (11.8, 13.9)
18.1% (16.2, 20.2)
11.8% (10.2, 13.6)
15.2% (13.5, 17.2)
20.5% (18.5, 22.7)
14.6% (12.9, 16.4)
16.4% (14.7, 18.3)
Comorbid Condition Both PHC and MHC
No PHC or MHC
23.4 (21.9, 24.9)
21.9 (20.1, 23.8)
21.7% (19.7, 23.9)
27.0% (24.8, 29.4)
24.7% (22.6, 26.9)
25.5% (23.3, 27.8)
Suicidal Ideation 12-Month Ideation
Lifetime Ideation
6.2% (5.4, 7.2)
18.6% (17.2, 20.2)
6.8% (5.6, 8.2)
20.8% (18.8, 23.0)
8.1% (6.8, 9.5)
21.7% (19.6, 23.9)
Health Services Have a regular medical doctor
Unmet health care need in past year
83.6% (81.9, 85.1)
-
83.1% (80.9, 85.0)
16.3% (14.5, 18.3)
82.8% (80.8, 84.7)
10.7% (9.2, 12.3)

* presence of MSK, CV, GI, Resp, DM, Cancer, Obesity.

Employment, Main Activity

The current employment rate of Regular Force Veterans was 65% (see Table 5). SrNCM had the lowest rate (57%), compared to Officers (64%) and JrNCM (70%). This pattern across rank groups is similar to work as the main activity in the past year. Veterans not in the workforce report their main activity as retired (16%), on disability (8%), or training (5%). Veterans not in the workforce was associated with older age and female genderFootnote 19.

Satisfaction with their main activity was reported by 74% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 5). JrNCM had the lowest rate (68%), compared to SrNCM (77%) and Officers (85%). This pattern across rank groups was also observed for transferability of military skills to a civilian job.

Table 5. Employment indicators, by Rank Group
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
Labour Force Status (current) Unemployment Rate
Employment Rate
Not in the workforce
6%
64%
31%
8%
57%
38%
9%
70%
22%
8%
65%
29%
Main activity (past year) Work
Retired
On disability
Training
64%
27%
3%
2%
59%
28%
7%
3%
72%
6%
11%
7%
66%
16%
8%
5%
Satisfaction with main activity Satisfied or very satisfied 85% 77% 68% 74%
Skills transferability Agree/strongly agree 69% 61% 40% 51%

In LASS 2016, of those who listed working as their main activity, 81% were satisfied or very satisfied with their main activity. Veterans not in the labour force reported higher rates of dissatisfaction with their main activity and with lifeFootnote 20.

Since LASS 2013, the trend for non-labour force activities has been increasing, although not statistically significant (see Appendix 4). Satisfaction with main activity and transferability of military skills has not changed.

Compared to Canadians of similar age and sex, Veterans report higher rates of being not in the workforce (see Appendix 6).

Finances

Some Veterans experienced low income, 4% of Regular Force Veterans reported incomes below the Low Income Measure (see Table 6). JrNCM had the highest rate (6%), compared to small numbers of SrNCM and Officers (too few to report).

Satisfaction with finances was reported by 69% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 6). JrNCM had the lowest rate (60%), compared to SrNCM (75%) and Officers (85%). This pattern across rank groups was also observed for other satisfaction measures such as satisfaction with workFootnote 21.

Table 6. Financial indicators, by Rank Group
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
Low Income Measure Below LIM F F 6% 4%
Household income $0 to <$50,000
$50,000 to <$100,000
$100,000 to <$150,000
$150,000+
3%
23%
25%
48%
12%
41%
41%
38%
25%
28%
23%
25%
48%
19%
19%
24%
Satisfaction with Finances Satisfied or very satisfied 85% 75% 60% 69%

Since LASS 2013, low income rates have improved (see Appendix 4). The trend for satisfaction with finances has decreased.

Compared to Canadians of similar age and sex, Veterans report lower rates of low income (4% vs. 14%), see Appendix 6.

Income of Veterans will be described in a subsequent report, using the LASS 2016 income linkage study.

Social Indicators

An easy adjustment to civilian life was reported by 52% of Regular Force Veterans, while 32% reported difficulty (see Table 7). Officers had the lowest rate of difficult adjustment (17%), compared to SrNCM (29%) and JrNCM (39%). This pattern across rank groups is similar to other social indicators, including social supportFootnote 22.

Table 7. Social indicators, by Rank Group
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
Adjustment to Civilian Life Very or moderately easy
Neither difficult nor easy
Very or moderately difficult
69%
14%
17%
57%
14%
29%
44%
17%
39%
52%
15%
32%
Satisfaction with Life Satisfied or very satisfied 94% 84% 81% 84%
Social Support High support 92% 84% 81% 84%
Satisfaction with Family Satisfied or very satisfied 93% 89% 83% 87%
Sense of Community Belonging Very or somewhat strong 68% 61% 52% 57%
Alcohol use Heavy drinker 19% 25% 31% 27%
Life Stress Extremely or quite a bit stressful 22% 20% 27% 24%

Since LASS 2013, the rate of difficult adjustment has been increasing, although not statistically significant (see Appendix 4). The other social indicators have not changed.

Veterans with recent releases (between 2012 and 2015) had a higher rate of difficult adjustment (42%), compared to earlier releases between 1998 and 2012 (see Appendix 5). Compared to those with earlier releases, these recently-released Veterans had higher rates of poor self-rated mental health and less than 10 years of military service. Recently-released Veterans had higher rates of service in Afghanistan (53%), compared to Veterans with earlier releases (18%). These factors are associated with difficult adjustmentFootnote 23Footnote 24Footnote 25.

Compared to Canadians of similar age and sex, Veterans report the same rate of life stress, and lower satisfaction with life and community belonging (see Appendix 6).

Health Services

Most Veterans visited a family doctor in the year prior to the survey, reported by 72% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 8). Officers had the highest rate (82%), compared to SrNCM (79%) and JrNCM (65%).

Almost half were receiving services from VAC, reported by 46% of Regular Force Veterans (see Table 8). SrNCM had the highest rate (59%), compared to Officers (35%) and JrNCM (42%). Characteristics of VAC clients were described in an earlier reportFootnote 26.

Table 8. Utilization of health services in the past year, by Rank Group
Indicator Category Officers
(17%)
Senior NCM
(31%)
Junior NCM
(52%)
Regular Force
(100%)
Age Mean (years) 55 55 42 48
Service Use in past year Family doctor visit
Mental health visit
Home care
Hospitalization
VAC client
82%
16%
7%
8%
35%
79%
24%
12%
9%
59%
65%
27%
11%
7%
42%
72%
24%
10%
8%
46%

Since LASS 2013, VAC clients have increased, while other service use has not changed (see Appendix 4).

Compared to Canadians of similar age and sex, Veterans report the same rates of visits to family doctors and hospitals (see Appendix 6).

Family

Following LASS 2013, the research on Veteran families was summarizedFootnote 27, and identified as requiring further study. LASS 2016 included new content on the families of Veterans, and this section provides further description of the family.

Family structure surrounding Veterans varies by age group (see Table 9). For example, the most common family composition for Veterans aged 55 or older was the Veteran living with their partner (74%). For Veterans aged 35 to 54, the most common family composition includes children (43%). For Veterans under the age of 35, the most common family composition includes children (35%), or living with extended family (25%) such as parents, siblings, in-laws, or not-related persons. The majority of Veterans (87%) reported satisfaction with their family.

Table 9. Family Composition, by age group
LASS 2016 Age Groups
<35 35-54 55+ Total
Veteran living with Partner, no children 24% 34% 74% 45%
Veteran living with children <=18yr 35% 43% 7% 30%
Veteran living alone 16% 13% 14% 14%
Veteran living with extend family 25% 10% 6% 11%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
Satisfaction with family 83% 85% 90% 87%

The majority of Veterans have a current partner; 79% are married or common-law (see Appendix 4). For Veterans with a current partner, 90% experienced the Veteran’s release from the military. This was most common for Veterans aged 55 or older (94%), 89% for Veterans aged 35 to 54, and 76% for Veterans under the age of 35.

The majority of Veterans report high social support (84%, see Appendix 4), and 96% agreed they had people to count on in an emergency. For these Veterans, 71% indicated their partner was the person they can count on in an emergency for support (see Table 10).

Table 10. Source of Social Support in an emergency, by age group
LASS 2016 Age Groups
<35 35-54 55+ Total
Spouse or partner 61% 71% 76% 71%
Parent or sibling 23% 11% 4% 11%
Friends or neighbours 12% 13% 11% 12%
Son or daughter F F 6% 3%
Other extended family F 3% F 3%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%

About a quarter of Veterans report they need help with daily activities of living (24%, see Appendix 4). For these Veterans, 76% indicated their partner was the person who provides the most unpaid help (see Table 11).

Table 11. Source of Support for ADL Needs, by age group
LASS 2016 Age Groups
<35 35-54 55+ Total
Spouse or partner 63% 73% 84% 76%
Parent or sibling F 9% F 7%
Friends or neighbours F 12% F 10%
Son or daughter F F F 5%
Other extended family F F F F
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%

Since partners (married or common-law) are an important part of the Veteran’s family, their characteristics of level of education, main activity, and activity limitations are described in Table 12.

Table 12. Characteristics of Veteran Partners, by age group
LASS 2016 Age Groups
<35 35-54 55+ Total
Partner’s Highest Education
Less than high school F F 5% 3%
High school graduation 27% 30% 39% 32%
Post-secondary graduation 45% 37% 35% 38%
University degree 27% 31% 21% 27%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
Partner’s Main Activity
Working 66% 72% 49% 63%
Retired F 7% 33% 15%
Caring for children/home 26% 13% 12% 15%
Other F 7% 7% 7%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
Partner’s Activity Limitations at Home
No activity limitation 80% 60% 52% 60%
Sometimes restricted activity 17% 24% 28% 24%
Often restricted activity F 17% 21% 16%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%

About a third of Veterans report they had a difficult adjustment to civilian life (32%, see Appendix 4). Of the 80% of Veterans who described the effect of their release on their partner, 28% reported their partner had difficulty with their release. Of the 60% of Veterans who described the effect of their release on their children, 17% reported their children had difficulty with their release (see Table 13).

Table 13. Difficult Adjustment to Civilian Life, by age group
LASS 2016 Age Groups
<35 35-54 55+ Total
Veteran Easy
Neither
Difficult
41%
20%
40%
50%
15%
35%
62%
14%
24%
52%
15%
32%
Partner Easy
Neither
Difficult
53%
17%
29%
53%
15%
33%
63%
17%
20%
57%
16%
28%
Children Easy
Neither
Difficult
63%
F
F
57%
23%
20%
64%
23%
13%
60%
23%
17%

Appendix 1. Definitions of LASS 2016 Indicators of Well-being

Indicator Definition Source
Demographics
Age Age at survey. DND
Sex Male or female. DND
Marital Status Are you … married, living common-law, widowed, separated, divorced, single never married. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Education What is the highest certificate, diploma or degree that you have completed? Less than high school; High school or equivalent; Post-secondary grad (Trade certificate; College/CEGEP diploma; University certif); University degree (Bachelor or above). LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Military Characteristics
Rank RankFootnote 28 at release, grouped as Officer, Senior NCM, Junior NCM Excludes Entry Ranks – (Recruit, Officer Cadet, 2nd Lieut). DND
Service Environment Environment at release: Air (Air Force), Land (Army), Sea (Navy). DND
Enrolment Era Year of CAF enrolment grouped into 4 periods. DND
Length of Service Years of Regular Force service calculated from the first date of enrolment to last date of release. DND
Release Type Voluntary (Immediate Annuity, Fixed Service, Retirement, Service Complete); Involuntary (dismissal, misconduct, illegally absent, fraudulent/irregular enrollment, unsatisfactory conduct, reduction in strength, not advantageously employed); Medical (career-limiting medical limitations 3a, 3b). DND
Deployment During your military service, did you ever deploy? Include international or domestic deployments, exclude training exercises. LASS 2010
LASS 2016
Health
Self-rated health In general, would you say your health is...?
Excellent, Very, good, Good, Fair, Poor.
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Self-rated mental health In general, would you say your mental health is...?
Excellent, Very, good, Good, Fair, Poor.
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Chronic Conditions (>6 month duration) Do you have any of the following diagnosed by a health professional?
… back problems, excluding fibromyalgia and arthritis?
… arthritis, excluding fibromyalgia?
… high blood pressure?
… mood disorder such as depression, mania, dysthymia or bipolar disorder?
… anxiety disorder such as phobia, obsessive-compulsive or panic disorder?
… PTSD?
… migraine headaches?
… diabetes?
… bowel disorder such as Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, Irritable Bowel, bowel incontinence?
… asthma?
… heart disease?
… intestinal or stomach ulcers?
… urinary incontinence?
… effects of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion?
… cancer?
… chronic bronchitis, emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?
… effects of a stroke?
… Alzheimer's Disease or any other dementia?
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Hearing Problem Scale of 5 questions on hearing from the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 scale (HUI3), derived by CHMS into 6 levels; this report used “not able to hear conversation in a group of three other persons without a hearing aid” (levels 2-6). LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Chronic Pain Scale of 3 questions on chronic pain or discomfort from the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 scale (HUI3), derived by CCHS into 5 levels; this report used pain that prevents a few, some, or most activities (levels 3-5). LASS 2013
LASS 2016
SF-12 Quality Metric's SF-12 Health Survey is a short form scale that uses proprietary software to generate a physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Activity Limitations Scale of 5 questions to measure health-related reduction of activity in life domains of home, school/work, or other activities such as transportation or leisure. Ranked as none, sometimes, often (RACDIMP). LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
ADL Need Scale of 6 questions that list basic and instrumental activities of daily living; ADL need included help with any of: personal care, indoor mobility; meals, errands, housework, or bill payment. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Psychological Distress Kessler’s scale of 10 questions on symptoms of depression and anxiety; low distress (score 0-9), mild distress (score 10-14); moderate distress (score 15-19); severe distress (score 20 to 40, likely severe mental disorder). LASS 2013
LASS 2016
PC-PTSD screen Primary Care PTSD scale of 4 questions on the symptoms of re-experiencing trauma, numbing, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. Probable PTSD if score 3+. LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Body Mass Index (BMI) Series of questions on self-reported weight and height are used to calculate BMI.
BMI = [weight in kilograms / height in metres] SQUARED
BMI categories use the international standard: Underweight (< 18.5), Normal weight (18.50 - 24.99), Overweight (25.00 - 29.99), Obese (30.00+).
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Suicidal ideation Have you ever seriously considered committing suicide or taking your own life, in the past 12 months. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Employment, Main Activity
Labour Force Status Unemployment Rate: Looking for work in past 4 weeks, of those in the labour force.
Employment Rate: Have a job (working or absent), of those in the population.
Not in the labour force: Neither employed nor unemployed, of those in the pop’n.
NOTE: Status at time of survey; LFS definitions of categories do not total 100%.
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Main Activity Main activity in the past 12 months: Worked at a job or ran a business; Retired and not looking for work; Attended school or training; Looked for work; Cared or nurtured a family member or partner; Was disabled or on disability. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Satisfaction with main activity How satisfied are you with your main activity? Very satisfied, satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, dissatisfied, very dissatisfied. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Military skills transfer The knowledge and skills at current job are the same as used in military service.
Strongly agree, Agree, Neither agree nor disagree, Disagree, Strongly disagree.
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Finances
Low income Household income below the Low Income Measure. Calculated by household size, and corresponding LIM thresholds published by Statistics Canada. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Household Income Estimate of income (before taxes) received by all household members, from all sources, for the 2015 year. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Satisfaction with finances How satisfied are you with your financial situation? Very satisfied, satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, dissatisfied, very dissatisfied. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Social Indicators
Adjustment to civilian life In general, how has the adjustment to civilian life been since you were released from the Canadian Forces? Very Difficult, Moderately Difficult, Neither Difficult nor Easy, Moderately Easy, Very Easy. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Satisfaction with life How do you feel about your life as a whole right now? (Score 0-10). Converted to very satisfied (9-10), satisfied (6-8), neither (5), dissatisfied (2-4), very dissatisfied (0-1). LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Social Support Social Provisions Scale of 10 questions on perceived social support. High social support for SPS score 30-40 (strongly agree or agree). LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Satisfaction with family How satisfied are you with your relationships with family members? very satisfied, satisfied, neither, dissatisfied, very dissatisfied. LASS 2010
LASS 2016
Community belonging How would you describe your sense of belonging to your local community?
very strong/ somewhat strong; somewhat weak/ very weak
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Heavy drinking 5 or more drinks per occasion, at least monthly in the past year.
In 2016, used 4 or more for women.
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Life stress Thinking about the amount of stress in your life, would you say that most days are...?
Not at all, not very, a bit, quite a bit, extremely (stressful).
LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Health Services
Family Doctor Seen or talked to a family doctor or general practitioner, in the past year. LASS 2010
LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Mental Health Seen or talked to a health professional about your emotional or mental health, in the past year. LASS 2016
Home Care Received any home care services, in the past 12 months. LASS 2013
LASS 2016
Hospitalization Overnight patient in a hospital, in past 12 months. LASS 2013
LASS 2016
VAC Client Veteran received any benefit from VAC as of 31 March 2016; includes all disability benefit clients (DA and/or DP). VAC

Appendix 2. LASS 2016 by 3 Rank Groups

Variable Category LASS 2016
Officers Senior NCM Junior NCM
n Wt% n Wt% n Wt%
    893 17.3% 981 30.5% 881 52.2%
Age Mean (years) 54.5 55.1 41.5
≤ 30
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
F
64
150
368
300
F
8.4%
17.9%
37.7%
34.9%
F
F
173
512
277
F
F
18.3%
51.4%
28.5%
171
260
211
217
F
14.4%
32.3%
23.8%
27.3%
F
Sex Male
Female
790
103
87.9%
12.1%
881
100
90.4%
9.6%
743
138
86.3%
13.7%
Marital status Married/Common-law
Widowed/Separated/Divorced
Single, never married
772
68
53
87.5%
7.8%
4.6%
824
102
54
83.4%
11.2%
5.4%
570
108
202
69.4%
10.9%
19.7%
Education Less than high school graduation
High school graduation
Post-secondary graduation
University degree
F
117
124
646
F
12.3%
12.6%
74.5%
54
532
355
36
5.7%
53.7%
36.5%
4.0%
41
383
415
42
4.3%
44.5%
45.2%
6.0%
Service Environment Air
Land
Sea
337
359
197
40.7%
39.1%
20.3%
362
419
200
36.7%
41.6%
21.7%
193
558
130
23.5%
61.5%
14.9%
Enrolment Era 1954-1975
1976-1990
1991-2000
2001-2015
209
454
93
137
27.8%
50.0%
10.3%
11.9%
263
625
63
F
26.9%
65.1%
5.8%
F
F
261
143
465
F
35.4%
18.8%
44.2%
Length of Service < 10 years
10 to 19 years
≥ 20 years
119
117
657
14.1%
12.6%
73.3%
F
71
891
F
6.8%
91.5%
439
229
212
53.1%
21.5%
25.4%
Release Type Voluntary
Involuntary
Medical
643
F
239
83.6%
F
15.0%
616
F
354
70.8%
F
28.0%
456
53
371
62.7%
8.0%
29.2%
Deployment Deployed during military service 713 76.9% 884 89.5% 578 63.6%
Self-Rated health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
498
242
153
62.2%
25.4%
12.4%
340
339
302
38.2%
34.8%
27.0%
333
268
280
44.2%
31.4%
24.4%
Self-Rated mental health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
619
149
125
74.1%
16.1%
9.9%
517
228
235
54.9%
23.2%
21.9%
389
224
267
49.8%
25.8%
24.4%
Chronic Conditions Back problems 340 34.0% 490 48.1% 380 38.8%
Arthritis 284 27.6% 413 40.2% 241 23.1%
High blood pressure 227 24.0% 299 30.4% 125 13.9%
Depression 136 11.4% 219 19.9% 246 23.9%
Anxiety 81 5.9% 154 14.1% 191 17.7%
PTSD 107 7.6% 203 18.4% 211 18.2%
Migraine 91 9.0% 134 12.5% 145 15.2%
Diabetes 52 5.3% 133 11.9% 51 5.2%
Bowel disorders 69 6.1% 88 8.4% 70 5.7%
Asthma 46 5.4% 61 6.1% 66 6.9%
Heart disease 56 5.7% 87 8.2% F F
Ulcers F F 54 5.7% 38 4.2%
Urinary 33 3.9% 61 5.8% 34 3.1%
TBI effects F F 40 3.6% 51 4.7%
Cancer 31 3.3% 35 3.5% F F
COPD F F 37 3.5% F F
Stroke F F F F F F
Dementia F F F F F F
Hearing Problems Has hearing problem 109 10.9% 178 19.2% 82 8.1%
Chronic Pain Has chronic pain 339 31.6% 517 48.4% 405 39.3%
SF-12 Physical Component Score (mean)
Mental Component Score (mean)
50.5
54.0
45.8
51.8
49.1
49.0
Activity Limitations No activity limitation
Sometimes restricted activity
Often restricted activity
383
261
248
50.3%
28.4%
21.3%
294
315
371
33.3%
32.5%
34.2%
309
246
326
42.6%
29.3%
28.1%
ADL Needs help with at least one ADL 172 14.1% 259 23.4% 237 20.5%
Psychological Distress Low distress (K10 <10)
Mild distress (K10 = 10-14)
Moderate distress (K10 = 15-19)
Severe distress (K10 = 20-40)
743
68
34
56
86.2%
6.9%
2.8%
4.0%
685
121
78
92
72.1%
12.0%
7.3%
8.5%
553
99
79
148
69.6%
9.5%
6.6%
14.4%
PC-PTSD screen Probable PTSD (3+ symptoms) 110 9.0% 193 17.9% 231 21.6%
Body Mass Index (BMI) Underweight
Normal weight
Overweight
Obese
F
218
424
241
F
26.9%
49.3%
23.3%
F
163
475
328
F
17.6%
49.1%
32.7%
F
242
352
271
F
28.0%
43.2%
28.4%
Suicidal Ideation 12-Month Ideation 56 4.4% 78 7.1% 120 9.8%
Labour Force Status (current) Unemployment Rate
Employment Rate
Not in the workforce
 
519
325
6.4%
64.4%
31.2%
 
525
402
7.5%
57.3%
38.1%
 
516
728
9.4%
70.3%
22.4%
Main activity (past year) Work
Retired
Disability
Training
Looked for work
Caregiving
506
254
58
34
F
F
63.8%
29.6%
3.4%
1.9%
F
F
533
273
82
41
F
F
58.5%
27.5%
7.0%
2.7%
F
F
522
69
137
93
38
F
71.9%
6.3%
10.6%
6.6%
2.2%
F
Satisfaction with main activity Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
733
62
96
85.4%
5.9%
8.7%
737
111
131
77.1%
11.5%
11.4%
541
140
200
68.3%
14.3%
17.4%
Skills Transferability Agree/strongly agree
Neither
Disagree/strongly disagree
453
63
139
69.3%
8.6%
22.1%
437
81
202
60.7%
11.0%
28.3%
265
90
317
39.9%
14.4%
45.8%
Low Income Measure Below LIM F F F F 64 6.0%
Household income $0 to <$50,000
$50,000 to <$100,000
$100,000 to <$150,000
$150,000+
F
235
223
382
F
23.4%
25.1%
48.2%
114
392
246
155
12.1%
41.4%
27.5%
19.0%
172
372
176
113
17.1%
41.0%
23.3%
18.6%
Satisfaction with Finances Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
742
83
68
84.7%
7.9%
7.3%
724
119
133
75.3%
11.3%
13.4%
467
180
234
59.5%
17.0%
23.5%
Adjustment to Civilian Life Very or moderately easy
Neither difficult nor easy
Very or moderately difficult
588
111
193
68.8%
13.9%
17.2%
533
135
312
57.0%
13.5%
29.4%
337
126
417
44.2%
16.7%
39.1%
Satisfaction with Life Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
809
34
47
94.0%
2.7%
3.3%
802
101
78
83.5%
9.1%
7.4%
669
98
114
81.3%
8.6%
10.1%
Social Support High support 787 91.9% 795 84.1% 658 80.8%
Satisfaction with Family Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
817
36
38
93.0%
3.8%
3.1%
867
58
52
89.1%
6.1%
4.8%
717
99
63
82.8%
9.4%
7.7%
Community Belonging Very or somewhat strong
Very or somewhat weak
571
321
68.4%
31.6%
573
400
60.7%
39.3%
401
477
51.7%
48.3%
Alcohol Use Heavy drinker 180 18.9% 247 25.4% 275 31.2%
Life Stress Not at all or Not very on most days
A bit stressful
Extremely or quite a bit stressful
372
332
189
40.5%
37.6%
21.9%
389
386
203
40.4%
39.6%
20.1%
209
413
258
24.5%
48.4%
27.1%
Service Use in past year Family doctor visit
Mental health visit
Home Care
Hospitalization
VAC Client
739
185
86
73
401
81.9%
16.1%
6.6%
7.8%
35.4%
784
259
131
98
615
79.0%
24.1%
11.7%
9.0%
58.7%
608
292
119
67
464
64.8%
26.8%
10.9%
7.1%
41.5%

F = too few to calculate a reliable estimate

Appendix 3. LASS 2016 by 3 Age Groups

Variable Category LASS 2016
<35 35-54 55+
n Wt% n Wt% n Wt%
Sex Male
Female
315
45
89.8%
10.2%
1059
204
84.7%
15.3%
1040
92
91.7%
8.3%
Marital status Married/Common-law
Widowed/Separated/Divorced
Single, never married
187
F
148
59.0%
F
34.8%
1004
141
117
78.4%
10.8%
10.7%
975
112
44
83.7%
12.2%
4.0%
Education Less than high school graduation
High school graduation
Post-secondary graduation
University degree
F
156
157
40
F
45.4%
44.7%
7.2%
38
445
440
340
3.3%
38.6%
39.9%
18.1%
55
431
297
344
6.0%
44.6%
28.1%
21.3%
Rank Officer
Senior NCM
Junior NCM
37
F
319
4.3%
F
95.1%
355
447
461
14.2%
28.0%
57.8%
501
530
101
29.2%
50.4%
20.4%
Service Environment Air
Land
Sea
34
272
54
7.8%
78.3%
14.0%
372
654
237
28.5%
52.7%
18.8%
486
410
236
45.8%
35.5%
18.7%
Enrolment Era 1954-1975
1976-1990
1991-2000
2001-2015
F
F
F
350
F
F
F
95.9%
F
781
266
215
F
59.4%
24.4%
16.2%
483
559
F
66
43.1%
52.5%
F
3.3%
Length of Service < 10 years
10 to 19 years
≥ 20 years
308
52
F
93.4%
6.6%
F
218
316
728
27.0%
26.5%
46.4%
50
49
1032
2.9%
2.9%
94.3%
Release Type Voluntary
Involuntary
Medical
248
32
80
77.7%
10.6%
11.6%
656
35
571
61.9%
5.6%
32.5%
811
F
313
74.9%
F
24.7%
Deployment Deployed during military service 168 41.6% 1052 78.3% 955 84.1%
Self-Rated health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
185
103
72
51.9%
35.1%
12.9%
470
395
398
43.3%
30.6%
26.1%
516
351
265
45.4%
30.6%
23.9%
Self-Rated mental health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
187
93
80
52.8%
28.6%
18.6%
604
280
379
51.1%
23.2%
25.7%
734
228
168
64.1%
20.7%
15.2%
Chronic Conditions Back problems 93 24.2% 612 44.7% 505 43.5%
Arthritis 37 7.9% 434 29.5% 467 39.8%
High blood pressure F F 251 18.2% 384 33.5%
Depression 67 16.2% 362 25.0% 172 15.8%
Anxiety 55 12.8% 262 18.3% 109 9.6%
PTSD 51 8.0% 344 22.9% 126 10.6%
Migraine 46 11.1% 213 16.3% 111 9.9%
Diabetes F F 88 5.8% 148 13.4%
Bowel disorders F F 129 7.7% 84 7.3%
Asthma F F 98 7.4% 59 5.5%
Heart disease F F 45 3.0% 113 9.1%
Ulcers F F 65 5.1% 45 4.9%
Urinary F F 55 3.7% 69 6.5%
TBI - yes F F 65 4.7% F F
Cancer F F F F 55 4.9%
COPD F F 35 2.6% 43 4.0%
Stroke F F F F F F
Dementia F F F F F F
Hearing Problems Has hearing problem F F 147 10.4% 205 18.6%
Chronic Pain Has chronic pain 107 27.0% 667 46.2% 487 39.6%
SF-12 Physical Component Score (mean)
Mental Component Score (mean)
53.9
49.7
47.5
49.3
46.7
53.5
Activity Limitations No activity limitation
Sometimes restricted activity
Often restricted activity
192
88
80
61.3%
23.5%
15.2%
369
386
507
35.8%
31.1%
33.1%
425
348
358
38.7%
32.0%
29.3%
ADL Needs help with at least one ADL 42 5.6% 396 25.7% 230 19.7%
Psychological Distress Low distress (K10 <10)
Mild distress (K10 = 10-14)
Moderate distress (K10 = 15-19)
Severe distress (K10 = 20-40)
259
34
30
36
76.5%
8.8%
7.2%
7.5%
809
148
110
195
67.9%
10.7%
7.0%
14.4%
904
106
51
65
80.0%
8.9%
4.3%
6.8%
PC-PTSD screen Probable PTSD (3+ symptoms) 70 15.1% 337 23.6% 127 11.5%
Body Mass Index (BMI) Underweight
Normal weight
Overweight
Obese
F
137
135
78
F
37.8%
41.6%
20.0%
F
273
550
418
F
23.9%
44.7%
31.0%
F
213
566
344
F
18.8%
50.5%
29.9%
Suicidal Ideation 12-Month Ideation 33 7.4% 159 10.3% 62 4.8%
Labour Force Status (current) Unemployment Rate
Employment Rate
Not in the workforce
 
239
69
13.9%
76.0%
11.8%
 
802
381
6.5%
70.5%
24.5%
 
519
555
7.8%
51.3%
44.4%
Main activity (past year) Work
Retired
Disability
Training
Looked for work
Caregiving
238
F
31
58
F
F
77.7%
F
6.3%
11.1%
F
F
801
130
166
91
46
F
71.3%
8.8%
9.7%
4.9%
2.3%
F
522
460
80
F
F
F
52.7%
36.4%
6.9%
F
F
F
Satisfaction with main activity Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
221
65
74
66.8%
16.8%
16.5%
883
147
232
73.1%
11.4%
15.5%
907
101
121
79.2%
10.2%
10.6%
Skills Transferability Agree/strongly agree
Neither
Disagree/strongly disagree
105
45
150
34.1%
17.9%
48.0%
537
110
318
50.0%
12.0%
38.0%
513
79
190
62.8%
9.7%
27.5%
Low Income Measure Below LIM 35 8.7% 43 4.0% F F
Household income $0 to <$50,000
$50,000 to <$100,000
$100,000 to <$150,000
$150,000+
82
150
56
55
20.9%
43.7%
17.1%
18.3%
125
400
319
360
11.6%
32.5%
27.2%
28.8%
106
449
270
235
11.4%
43.7%
25.5%
19.4%
Satisfaction with Finances Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
173
79
108
52.6%
18.4%
29.0%
851
189
222
67.6%
13.6%
18.8%
909
114
105
79.1%
11.3%
9.6%
Adjustment to Civilian Life Very or moderately easy
Neither difficult nor easy
Very or moderately difficult
134
59
166
40.5%
19.7%
39.8%
601
174
486
50.1%
14.8%
35.1%
723
139
270
62.3%
13.6%
24.1%
Satisfaction with Life Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
291
32
37
85.3%
5.7%
9.0%
1007
123
131
82.7%
8.9%
8.3%
982
78
71
85.7%
6.9%
7.3%
Social Support High support 295 87.9% 983 80.9% 962 86.0%
Satisfaction with Family Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
300
46
F
83.2%
11.1%
F
1063
101
98
85.2%
7.9%
6.8%
1038
46
41
90.4%
4.7%
4.9%
Community Belonging Very or somewhat strong
Very or somewhat weak
167
190
54.2%
45.8%
632
626
53.7%
46.3%
746
382
64.7%
35.3%
Alcohol Use Heavy drinker 118 34.2% 355 29.2% 229 20.7%
Life Stress Not at all or Not very on most days
A bit stressful
Extremely or quite a bit stressful
104
159
97
30.3%
49.0%
20.7%
317
561
383
23.8%
46.0%
30.2%
549
411
170
46.0%
37.7%
16.2%
Service Use in past year Family doctor visit
Mental health visit
Home Care
Hospitalization
VAC Client
190
95
F
F
114
48.5%
22.5%
F
F
22.5%
988
431
190
106
767
73.1%
28.6%
12.3%
6.8%
50.9%
953
210
129
109
599
83.2%
18.0%
11.3%
9.9%
50.0%

F = too few to calculate a reliable estimate

Appendix 4. LASS 2010, 2013 and 2016Footnote 29

Variable Category LASS 2010 LASS 2013 LASS 2016
Year of Release 1998-2007 1998-2012 1998-2015
Sample Size 2,857 1,998 2,755
Years Since Release (mean) 6.9 7.4 8.6
Age Mean (years) 46.3 46.8 48.1
≤ 30
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
7.7% (6.5, 9.1)
15.7% (14.1,17.4)
39.1% (37.2, 41.1)
28.2% (26.4, 30.0)
9.4% (8.3, 10.6)
8.9% (7.3, 10.9)
16.7% (14.7, 19.0)
28.6% (26.4, 31.0)
34.1% (31.9, 36.4)
11.6% (10.4, 12.9)
7.7% (6.5, 9.1)
18.8% (16.6, 21.2)
21.1% (19.1, 23.3)
36.5% (34.2, 38.8)
16.0% (14.7, 17.4)
Sex Male
Female
88.5% (87.1, 89.7)
11.5% (10.3, 12.9)
87.5% (85.7, 89.1)
12.5% (10.9, 14.3)
87.8% (86.1, 89.4)
12.2% (10.6, 13.9)
Marital status Married/Common-law
Widowed/Separated/Divorced
Single, never married
81.0% (79.4, 82.6)
10.1 (8.9, 11.3)
8.9 (7.7, 10.3)
77.9% (75.6, 80.0)
11.3% (9.8, 13.0)
10.9% (9.2, 12.8)
76.8% (74.6, 78.9)
10.5% (9.1, 12.1)
12.7% (11.0, 14.6)
Education Less than high school graduation
High school graduation
Post-secondary graduation
University degree
6.9% (6.0, 8.0)
42.2% (40.2, 44.2)
36.2% (34.3, 38.2)
14.7% (13.2, 16.2)
5.3% (4.3, 6.6))
44.5% (42.1, 47.1)
35.0% (32.6, 37.5)
15.2% (13.8, 16.7)
4.1% (3.2, 5.2)
41.7% (39.3, 44.2)
37.0% (34.5, 39.4)
17.3% (15.9, 18.7)
Rank Officer
Senior NCM
Junior NCM
17.6% (16.1, 19.2)
33.4% (31.5, 35.3)
49.0% (47.0, 51.1)
17.1% (15.7, 18.6)
30.6% (28.6, 32.6)
52.3% (49.9, 54.8)
17.3% (16.6, 18.1)
30.5% (29.5, 31.6)
52.2% (50.7, 53.6)
Service Environment Air
Land
Sea
47.9% (45.9, 50.0)
35.2% (33.2, 37.2)
16.9% (15.4, 18.6)
32.1% (29.9, 34.4)
51.5% (49.0, 54.0)
16.4% (14.6, 18.2)
30.5% (28.3, 32.8)
51.6% (49.1, 54.0)
17.9% (16.1, 19.9)
Enrolment Era 1954-1975
1976-1990
1991-2000
2001-2015
21.3% (19.8, 23.0)
55.3% (53.3, 57.3)
13.9% (12.4, 15.6)
9.4% (8.1, 10.9)
17.8% (16.3, 19.4)
49.5% (47.0, 52.0)
13.9% (12.1, 16.0)
18.8% (16.5, 21.2)
13.9% (12.7, 15.2)
47.0% (44.5, 49.4)
13.4% (11.6, 15.4)
25.8% (23.6, 28.1)
Length of Service < 10 years
10 to 19 years
≥ 20 years
22.3% (20.5, 24.3)
15.3% (13.9, 16.8)
62.4% (60.3, 64.4)
28.2% (25.7, 30.8)
13.9% (12.1, 15.8)
58.0% (55.3, 60.5)
30.7% (28.3, 33.1)
15.5% (13.7, 17.4)
53.9% (51.6, 56.1)
Release Type Voluntary
Involuntary
Medical
69.4% (67.8, 70.9)
2.6% (1.9, 3.4)
28.1% (26.6, 29.5)
71.1% (68.7, 73.4)
4.3% (3.2, 5.8)
24.6% (22.5, 26.9)
68.8% (66.4, 71.1)
4.8% (3.5, 6.5)
26.4% (24.3, 28.5)
Deployment Deployed during military service 70.3% (68.3, 72.2) -- 73.8% (71.4, 76.1)
Self-Rated health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
52.0% (50.1, 53.9)
28.1% (26.4, 29.9)
19.9% (18.5, 21.3)
48.9% (46.4, 51.4)
31.0% (28.7, 33.4)
20.1% (18.2, 22.2)
45.5% (43.0, 48.0)
31.4 %(29.1, 33.8)
23.1% (21.2, 25.2)
Self-Rated mental health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
64.9% (63.0, 66.7)
19.8% (18.3, 21.5)
15.3% (14.1, 16.6)
59.9% (57.4, 62.4)
23.1% (21.0, 25.3)
17.0% (15.2, 19.0)
55.6 (53.1, 58.1)
23.3 (21.2, 25.6)
21.1 (19.2, 23.2)
Chronic Conditions Back problems 43.8% (41.9, 45.8) 39.2% (36.8, 41.7) 40.8% (38.4, 43.3)
Arthritis 26.6% (25.0, 28.2) 26.1% (24.0, 28.2) 29.1% (27.0, 31.3)
High blood pressure 20.8% (19.2, 22.4) 19.6% (17.8, 21.5) 20.7% (18.9, 22.6)
Depression -- 18.1% (16.2, 20.2) 20.5% (18.5, 22.7)
Anxiety 11.2% (10.2, 12.4) 11.8% (10.2, 13.6) 14.6% (12.9, 16.4)
PTSD 12.8% (11.8, 13.9) 15.2% (13.5, 17.2) 16.4% (14.7, 18.3)
Migraine -- 13.7% (12.0, 15.6) 13.3% (11.7, 15.2)
Diabetes 6.3% (5.4, 7.3) 6.7% (5.6, 8.0) 7.2% (6.2, 8.5)
Bowel disorders 7.4% (6.5, 8.5) 6.0% (4.9, 7.2) 6.6% (5.6, 7.8)
Asthma 6.1% (5.2, 7.1) 6.0% (4.9, 7.3) 6.4% (5.3, 7.8)
Heart disease 4.7% (3.9, 5.6) 3.8% (3.1, 4.7) 4.5% (3.7, 5.4)
Ulcers 6.6% (5.7, 7.5) 4.0% (3.2, 5.1) 4.3% (3.4, 5.4)
Urinary -- 3.2% (2.5, 4.2) 4.1% (3.3, 5.0)
TBI effects -- 2.9% (2.2, 3.9) 3.9% (3.0, 5.0)
Cancer 1.4% (1.0, 1.9) 1.7% (1.3, 2.3) 2.6% (2.0, 3.4)
COPD 3.1% (2.5, 3.8) 2.9% (2.2, 3.9) 2.6% (1.9, 3.4)
Stroke 0.9% (0.6, 1.3) F F
Dementia -- F F
Hearing Problems Has hearing problem -- 10.2% (8.8, 11.7) 11.9% (10.5, 13.5)
Chronic Pain Has chronic pain -- 37.2% (34.8, 39.6) 40.8% (38.4, 43.2)
SF-12 Physical Component Score (mean)
Mental Component Score (mean)
46.2 (45.9, 46.6)
51.6 (51.2, 52.0)
46.8 (46.2, 47.4)
51.2 (50.6, 51.8)
48.3 (47.8, 48.9)
50.7 (50.1, 51.3)
Activity Limitations No activity limitation
Sometimes restricted activity
Often restricted activity
44.7% (42.9, 46.6)
28.1% (26.3, 29.9)
27.2% (25.8, 28.7)
44.7% (42.2, 47.2)
28.2% (26.0, 30.4)
27.1% (25.0, 29.4)
41.1% (38.6, 43.6)
30.1% (27.8, 32.5)
28.8% (26.7, 31.0)
ADL Needs help with at least one ADL 19.3% (18.0, 20.5) 23.0% (21.0, 25.2) 20.3% (18.4, 22.3)
Psychological Distress Low distress (K10 <10)
Mild distress (K10 = 10-14)
Moderate distress (K10 = 15-19)
Severe distress (K10 = 20-40)
--
--
--
--
77.6% (75.4, 79.7)
9.1% (7.8, 10.7)
5.3% (4.2, 6.6)
8.0% (6.7, 9.6)
73.3% (71.0, 75.4)
9.8% (8.5, 11.3)
6.2% (5.1, 7.4)
10.8% (9.3, 12.5)
PC-PTSD screen Probable PTSD (3+ symptoms) -- 15.6% (13.8, 17.6) 18.3% (16.4, 20.3)
Body Mass Index (BMI) Underweight
Normal weight
Overweight
Obese
F
25.4% (23.6, 27.3)
44.7% (42.6, 46.7)
29.8% (28.0, 31.6)
F
25.3% (23.1, 27.6)
46.9% (44.4, 49.5)
27.4% (25.2, 29.7)
F
24.6% (22.5, 26.9)
46.1% (43.6, 48.6)
28.8% (26.6, 31.1)
Suicidal Ideation 12-Month Ideation 6.2% (5.4, 7.2) 6.8% (5.6, 8.2) 8.1% (6.8, 9.5)
Labour Force Status (current) Unemployment Rate
Employment Rate
Not in the workforce
5.6% (4.7, 6.7)
72.8% (71.0, 74.5)
21.8% (20.3, 23.4)
6.2% (4.9, 7.8)
69.3% (67.0, 71.6)
26.1% (24.0, 28.3)
8.4% (6.9, 10.2)
65.3% (63.0, 67.5)
28.7% (26.7, 30.9)
Main activity (past year) Work
Retired
Disability
Training
Looked for work
Caregiving
Other
74.2% (72.5, 75.8)
10.6% (9.5, 11.9)
6.9% (6.2, 7.8)
2.7% (2.1, 3.5)
2.2% (1.7, 2.9)
1.8% (1.3, 2.4)
1.6% (1.2, 2.2)
68.3% (66.0, 70.5)
15.0% (13.5, 16.6)
6.7% (5.5, 8.1)
3.4% (2.5, 4.6)
1.9% (1.4, 2.7)
1.5% (1.0, 2.3)
3.2% (2.4, 4.2)
66.4% (64.2, 68.6)
16.3% (14.9, 17.9)
8.2% (7.0, 9.6)
4.6% (3.7, 5.7)
2.1% (1.7, 2.8)
2.3% (1.6, 3.2)
--
Satisfaction with main activity Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
75.5% (73.7, 77.1)
10.4% (9.2, 11.7)
14.2% (12.9, 15.5)
75.4% (73.1, 77.5)
11.3% (9.7, 13.1)
13.3% (11.7, 15.2)
74.0% (71.7, 76.1)
12.0% (10.4, 13.7)
14.1% (12.5, 15.9)
Skills Transferability Agree/strongly agree
Neither
Disagree/strongly disagree
75.1% (73.2, 77.0)
8.3% (7.2, 9.6)
16.6% (15.0, 18.3)
51.6% (49.1, 54.2)
12.3% (10.7, 14.2)
36.0% (33.6, 38.6)
50.8% (47.9, 53.6)
12.4% (10.6, 14.5)
36.8% (34.0, 39.7)
Low Income Measure Below LIM 5.6% (4.7, 6.7) 4.8% (3.7, 6.1) 4.2% (3.2, 5.4)
Household income $0 to <$50,000
$50,000 to <$100,000
$100,000 to <$150,000
$150,000+
15.6% (14.2, 17.2)
40.1% (38.0, 42.1)
26.5% (24.6, 28.4)
17.9% (16.3, 19.6)
9.5% (8.0, 11.3)
39.4% (36.8, 42.2)
29.4% (26.9, 32.0)
21.7% (19.6, 23.9)
13.2% (11.5, 15.0)
38.0% (35.5, 40.6)
24.9% (22.7, 27.2)
24.0% (21.8, 26.3)
Satisfaction with Finances Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
74.5% (72.6, 76.2)
11.2% (10.0, 12.6)
14.3% (13.0, 15.8)
73.8% (71.5, 76.1)
10.7% (9.2, 12.4)
15.5% (13.6, 17.5)
68.7% (66.3, 71.0)
13.7% (12.1, 15.5)
17.6% (15.7, 19.7)
Adjustment to Civilian Life Very or moderately easy
Neither difficult nor easy
Very or moderately difficult
59.5% (57.6, 61.5)
12.8% (11.5, 14.2)
27.7% (26.0, 29.5)
54.3% (51.8, 56.8)
16.1% (14.3, 18.1)
29.6% (27.3, 32.0)
52.4% (49.9, 54.9)
15.2% (13.5, 17.2)
32.4% (30.1, 34.8)
Satisfaction with Life Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
83.9% (82.5, 85.3)
8.6% (7.6, 9.8)
7.5% (6.6, 8.4)
85.1% (83.2, 86.9)
7.3% (6.1, 8.8)
7.5% (6.3, 9.0)
84.1% (82.2, 85.9)
7.7% (6.5, 9.1)
8.1% (6.9, 9.6)
Social Support High support -- 83.4% (81.4, 85.2) 83.7% (81.7, 85.6)
Satisfaction with Family Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
87.4% (86.1, 88.6)
6.2% (5.3, 7.2)
6.5% (5.6, 7.4)
--
--
--
86.5% (84.7, 88.2)
7.4% (6.2, 8.9)
6.0% (4.9, 7.4)
Community Belonging Very or somewhat strong
Very or somewhat weak
59.0% (56.9, 61.0)
41.1% (39.1, 43.1)
57.6% (55.1, 60.1)
42.4 (39.9, 44.9)
57.4% (54.9, 59.8)
42.6% (40.2, 45.2)
Alcohol Use Heavy drinker 27.9% (25.9, 29.9) 24.7% (22.6, 27.0) 27.3% (25.1, 29.7)
Smoking Daily Smoker 18.4% (16.9, 20.1) 16.6% (14.7, 18.7) --
Life Stress Not at all or Not very on most days
A bit stressful
Extremely or quite a bit stressful
36.4% (34.4, 38.4)
42.0% (40.0, 44.1)
21.6% (20.0, 23.3)
36.9% (34.5, 39.3)
40.2% (37.7, 42.7)
23.0% (20.9, 25.2)
32.1% (29.9, 34.4)
43.9% (41.4, 46.4)
24.1% (21.9, 26.3)
Service Use in past year Family doctor visit
Mental health visit
Home Care
Hospitalization
VAC Client
--
--
--
--
39.0% (38.7, 39.2)
76.6% (74.2, 78.8)
--
14.6% (13.0, 16.4)
7.5% (6.3, 9.0)
42.7% (40.2, 45.2)
72.1% (69.7, 74.5)
24.1% (22.1, 26.3)
10.4% (9.1, 12.0)
7.8% (6.6, 9.2)
45.7% (43.3, 48.2)

F = too few to calculate a reliable estimate

Appendix 5. LASS 2016 Recent Releases and Earlier Releases
Compared to LASS 2013

Variable Category LASS 2016 LASS 2013
Released Sept 2012-2015 Released 1998-Aug 2012 Released 1998-Aug 2012
n Wt% n Wt% n Wt%
    1180   1575   1998  
Age Mean (years) 41 50 47
≤ 30
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
163
217
281
409
110
22.5%
21.9%
24.6%
25.7%
5.3%
F
126
253
688
489
F
17.9%
20.0%
39.7%
19.2%
86
206
543
801
362
8.9%
16.7%
28.6%
34.1%
11.6%
Sex Male
Female
1014
166
87.2%
12.8%
1400
175
88.0%
12.0%
1764
234
87.5%
12.5%
Marital status Married/Common-law
Widowed/Separated/Divorced
Single, never married
850
115
214
65.7%
11.0%
23.2%
1316
163
95
80.2%
10.3%
9.5%
1646
211
141
77.9%
11.3%
10.9%
Education Less than high school graduation
High school graduation
Post-secondary graduation
University degree
31
421
403
325
2.8%
42.8%
39.0%
15.5%
69
611
491
399
4.5%
41.4%
36.3%
17.8%
102
829
602
460
5.3%
44.5%
35.0%
15.2%
Rank Officer
Senior NCM
Junior NCM
405
289
486
17.1%
29.3%
53.6%
488
692
395
17.4%
30.9%
51.7%
588
844
566
17.1%
30.6%
52.3%
Service Environment Air
Land
Sea
292
650
238
20.7%
58.5%
20.7%
600
686
289
33.5%
49.5%
17.1%
740
905
353
32.1%
51.5%
16.4%
Enrolment Era 1954-1975
1976-1990
1991-2000
2001-2015
F
471
170
509
F
33.6%
12.7%
52.3%
455
869
129
222
17.7%
51.0%
13.6%
17.7%
534
1073
191
200
17.8%
49.5%
13.9%
18.8%
Length of Service < 10 years
10 to 19 years
≥ 20 years
375
240
563
42.2%
18.1%
39.7%
201
177
1197
27.2%
14.7%
58.2%
316
222
1460
28.2%
13.9%
58.0%
Release Type Voluntary
Involuntary
Medical
562
32
586
64.3%
2.6%
33.1%
1153
39
378
70.2%
5.5%
24.3%
1483
45
463
71.1%
4.3%
24.6%
Deployment Deployed during military service 916 72.3% 1259 74.3% -- --
Self-Rated health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
443
365
372
43.4%
29.9%
26.8%
728
484
363
46.1%
31.9%
22.0%
1006
611
381
48.9%
31.0%
20.1%
Self-Rated mental health Very good or excellent
Good
Fair or poor
579
248
353
51.4%
21.8%
26.8%
946
353
274
56.8%
23.8%
19.4%
1263
423
311
59.9%
23.1%
17.0%
Chronic Conditions Back problems 547 40.6% 663 40.8% 803 39.2%
Arthritis 400 27.5% 538 29.6% 572 26.1%
High blood pressure 231 15.4% 420 22.3% 465 19.6%
Depression 322 23.0% 279 19.8% 327 18.1%
Anxiety 237 17.7% 189 13.6% 207 11.8%
PTSD 294 20.8% 227 15.1% 269 15.2%
Migraine 188 14.7% 182 12.9% 250 13.7%
Diabetes 82 5.3% 154 7.8% 147 6.7%
Bowel disorders 112 7.1% 115 6.4% 123 6.0%
Asthma 72 5.8% 101 6.6% 117 6.0%
Heart disease 53 2.8% 107 5.0% 98 3.8%
Ulcers 46 3.5% 70 4.5% 80 4.0%
Urinary 43 3.2% 85 4.3% 67 3.2%
TBI effects 66 5.6% 49 3.4% 55 2.9%
Cancer F F 60 3.0% 47 1.7%
COPD F F 53 3.0% 64 2.9%
Stroke F F F F F F
Dementia F F F F F F
Hearing Problems Has hearing problem 142 10.4% 227 12.4% 232 10.2%
Chronic Pain Has chronic pain 608 44.6% 653 39.6% 750 37.2%
SF-12 Physical Component Score (mean)
Mental Component Score (mean)
48.0
49.3
48.4
51.2
46.8
51.2
Activity Limitations No activity limitation
Sometimes restricted activity
Often restricted activity
354
340
485
38.6%
27.9%
33.5%
632
482
460
41.9%
30.8%
27.4%
866
582
547
44.7%
28.2%
27.1%
ADL Needs help with at least one ADL 339 21.4% 329 19.9% 450 23.0%
Psychological Distress Low distress (K10 <10)
Mild distress (K10 = 10-14)
Moderate distress (K10 = 15-19)
Severe distress (K10 = 20-40)
773
137
106
163
68.1%
11.7%
8.8%
11.4%
1199
151
85
133
74.8%
9.2%
5.4%
10.6%
1583
175
92
135
77.6%
9.1%
5.3%
8.0%
PC-PTSD screen Probable PTSD (3+ symptoms) 293 21.8% 241 17.2% 288 15.6%
Body Mass Index (BMI) Underweight
Normal weight
Overweight
Obese
F
293
484
384
F
29.7%
40.6%
29.0%
F
330
767
456
F
23.1%
47.7%
28.7%
F
475
972
533
F
25.3%
46.9%
27.4%
Suicidal Ideation 12-Month Ideation 151 10.9% 103 7.2% 114 6.8%
Labour Force Status (current) Unemployment Rate
Employment Rate
Not in the workforce
 
588
461
16.6%
56.7%
32.0%
 
972
544
6.1%
67.9%
27.7%
 
1328
586
6.2%
69.3%
26.1%
Main activity (past year) Work
Retired
Disability
Training
Looked for work
Caregiving
Other
569
201
169
149
66
F
F
55.4%
13.5%
11.3%
12.4%
5.1%
F
F
992
395
108
F
F
33
F
69.8%
17.1%
7.3%
F
F
2.3%
F
1304
393
118
49
40
30
64
68.3%
15.0%
6.7%
3.4%
1.9%
1.5%
3.2%
Satisfaction with main activity Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
784
156
240
67.1%
13.9%
19.0%
1227
157
187
76.0%
11.4%
12.6%
1556
194
241
75.4%
11.3%
13.3%
Skills Transferability Agree/strongly agree
Neither
Disagree/strongly disagree
383
81
267
47.7%
11.4%
40.9%
772
153
391
51.5%
12.7%
35.8%
1059
214
606
51.6%
12.3%
36.0%
Low Income Measure Below LIM 56 6.2% 40 3.6% 73 4.8%
Household income $0 to <$50,000
$50,000 to <$100,000
$100,000 to <$150,000
$150,000+
158
450
271
252
16.6%
41.0%
23.0%
19.4%
155
549
374
398
12.1%
37.1%
25.5%
25.3%
140
627
478
436
9.5%
39.4%
29.4%
21.7%
Satisfaction with Finances Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
744
198
237
59.7%
17.9%
22.4%
1189
184
198
71.4%
12.4%
16.2%
1553
187
254
73.8%
10.7%
15.5%
Adjustment to Civilian Life Very or moderately easy
Neither difficult nor easy
Very or moderately difficult
537
136
504
45.6%
12.6%
41.7%
921
236
418
54.4%
16.0%
29.6%
1180
302
514
54.3%
16.1%
29.6%
Satisfaction with Life Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
915
127
136
79.7%
10.2%
10.0%
1365
106
103
85.5%
7.0%
7.6%
1728
134
133
85.1%
7.3%
7.5%
Social Support High support 912 81.8% 1328 84.3% 1647 83.4%
Satisfaction with Family Satisfied or very satisfied
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied
1005
101
72
85.7%
9.5%
4.8%
1396
92
81
86.8%
6.8%
6.4%
--
--
--
--
--
--
Community Belonging Very or somewhat strong
Very or somewhat weak
558
617
48.4%
51.6%
987
581
60.1%
39.9%
1188
795
57.6%
42.4%
Alcohol Use Heavy drinker 346 32.1% 356 25.9% 470 24.7%
Life Stress Not at all or Not very on most days
A bit stressful
Extremely or quite a bit stressful
386
483
310
32.1%
42.8%
25.1%
584
648
340
32.1%
44.2%
23.7%
773
789
432
36.9%
40.2%
23.0%
Service Use in past year Family doctor visit
Mental health visit
Home Care
Hospitalization
VAC Client
896
401
157
94
736
69.8%
30.1%
9.9%
6.5%
53.0%
1235
335
179
144
744
72.8%
22.3%
10.6%
8.1%
43.5%
1613
--
297
140
886
76.6%
--%
14.6%
7.5%
42.7%

F = too few to calculate a reliable estimate

Appendix 6. LASS 2016 with Canadian Comparators

Variable Category LASS 2016 Canadian data
n Wt% (CI) Canadian ComparatorFootnote 30 Source of comparator
Marital status Married/Common-law
Widowed/Separated/Divorced
Single, never married
2166
278
309
76.8% (74.6, 78.9)
10.5% (9.1, 12.1)
12.7% (11.0, 14.6)
72.8%
9.9%
17.3%
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
Education Less than high school graduation
High school graduation
Post-secondary graduation
University degree
100
1032
1618
4.1% (3.2, 5.2)
41.7% (39.3, 44.2)
54.2% (51.7, 56.7)
5.0%
19.8%
64.8%
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
Self-Rated health Very good or excellent 1171 45.5% (43.0, 48.0) 58.4% CCHS 2013-14
Self-Rated mental health Very good or excellent 1525 55.6% (53.1, 58.1) 71.2% CCHS 2013-14
Chronic Conditions Back problems 1210 40.8% (38.4, 43.3) 20.3% CCHS 2013-14
Arthritis 938 29.1% (27.0, 31.3) 13.6% CCHS 2013-14
High blood pressure 651 20.7% (18.9, 22.6) 19.6% CCHS 2013-14
Depression 601 20.5% (18.5, 22.7) 7.4% CCHS 2013-14
Anxiety 426 14.6% (12.9, 16.4) 5.7% CCHS 2013-14
PTSD 521 16.4% (14.7, 18.3) 1.3% CCHS 2012
Migraine 370 13.3% (11.7, 15.2) 7.7% CCHS 2013-14
Diabetes 236 7.2% (6.2, 8.5) 7.5% CCHS 2013-14
Bowel disorders 227 6.6% (5.6, 7.8) 3.6% CCHS 2013-14
Asthma 173 6.4% (5.3, 7.8) 6.5% CCHS 2013-14
Heart disease 160 4.5% (3.7, 5.4) 4.7% CCHS 2013-14
Ulcers 116 4.3% (3.4, 5.4) 2.9% CCHS 2013-14
Urinary 128 4.1% (3.3, 5.0) 1.9% CCHS 2013-14
Cancer 81 3.9% (3.0, 5.0) 1.5% CCHS 2013-14
COPD 78 2.6% (2.0, 3.4) 2.6% CCHS 2013-14
Hearing Problems Has hearing problem 369 11.9% (10.5, 13.5)% 2.7% CCHS 2013-14
Chronic Pain Has chronic pain 1261 40.8% (38.4, 43.2) 21.7% CCHS 2011-12
Activity Limitations No activity limitation
Sometimes restricted activity
Often restricted activity
986
822
945
41.1% (38.6, 43.6)
30.1% (27.8, 32.5)
28.8% (26.7, 31.0)
74.4%
15.9%
9.6%
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
ADL Needs help with at least one ADL 668 20.3% (18.4, 22.3) 6.6% CCHS 2013-14
Body Mass Index (BMI) Obese 840 28.8% (26.6, 31.1) 22.9% CCHS 2013-14
Labour Force Status (current) Unemployment Rate
Employment Rate
Not in the workforce
 
1560
1005
8.4% (6.9, 10.2)
65.3% (63.0, 67.5)
28.7% (26.7, 30.9)
7.5%
73.9%
20.2%
LFS Mar 2016
LFS Mar 2016
LFS Mar 2016
Low Income Measure Below LIM 96 4.2% (3.2, 5.4) 14.5% SLID 2011
Satisfaction with Life Satisfied or very satisfied 2280 84.1% (82.2, 85.9) 91.0% CCHS 2013-14
Community Belonging Very or somewhat strong 1545 57.4% (54.9, 59.8) 64.8% CCHS 2013-14
Alcohol Use Heavy drinker 702 27.3% (25.1, 29.7) 23.6% CCHS 2013-14
Life Stress Extremely or quite a bit stressful on most days 650 24.1% (21.9, 26.3) 25.6% CCHS 2013-14
Service Use in past year Family doctor visit
Hospitalization
2131
238
72.1% (69.7, 74.5)
7.8% (6.6, 9.2)
73.0%
6.5%
CCHS 2013-14
CCHS 2013-14
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