Notes

  1. Mr. Mountain Horse was a member of the Blood Band in Alberta. The quotation is an excerpt from his book My People: The Bloods, p. 144.
  2. From the Sioux Valley Band in Manitoba, Mr. Whitecloud is quoted in Lindsay Kines, "War Greeted Native with Two Shocks," The Brandon Sun, November 12, 1982, p. 2.
  3. From Saskatchewan's Montreal Lake Band, Mr. Bird is quoted in Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association, We Were There, p. 26.
  4. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Basic Departmental Data, p. 1; and Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Population Projections of Registered Indians, pp. 49, 63-65.
  5. Information provided January 1992 by the Secretary of State of Canada, Social Trends Analysis Directorate, from material prepared by the Demography Division of Statistics Canada.
    • The First World War
  6. "World War I—1914-1918," AMMSA , 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
  7. Department of Indian Affairs, Annual Report, 1918-1919, p. 13.
  8. Department of Indian Affairs, Annual Report, 1913-1914, p. xxvii.
  9. However, various Indigenous groups and individuals are presently conducting research to determine them.
  10. Library and Archives Canada RG 24, Vol. 1221, file HQ 593-1-7.
  11. These assurances are documented in Alexander Morris, The Treaties of Canada.
  12. Duncan Scott, "The Canadian Indians and the Great World War," Guarding the Channel Ports, p. 297.
  13. La Libre Parole [Winnipeg], April 20, 1916. From A.-H. de Tremaudan, Hold High Your Heads, p. 164.
  14. Fred Gaffen, Forgotten Soldiers, p. 29.
  15. Active recruiting by militia regiments in the Hudson Bay area may account for this high number. From Library and Archives Canada RG 24, Vol. 1221, file HQ 593-1-7.
  16. Using picks, spades and other tools, pioneers prepared the way for the main armed force.
  17. James Dempsey, "Indians of the Prairie Provinces in World War I" (M.A. dissertation), pp. 53 and 120.
  18. Korean War Veteran Ronald Lowry in a June 1991 conversation with the author.
  19. Dempsey, "Persistence of a Warrior Ethic among the Plains Indians," Alberta History, 36, 1 (Winter 1988).
  20. George Stanley, "The Significance of the Six Nations Participation in the War of 1812," Ontario History, LV, 4 (December 1963), p. 217.
  21. Removed
  22. Military General Service; Egypt Medal; North West Canada, p. 23.
  23. Louis Jackson, Our Caughnawagas in Egypt, p. 1.
  24. David-Michael Thompson, "Ojibway and Mohawk Voyageurs in the Nile Expedition of 1884-1885" (unpublished research paper), 1990.
  25. Gaffen, p. 11.
  26. Ibid, p. 28.
  27. King George V introduced the Military Medal in 1916 to recognize non-commissioned officers and men for bravery in the field. After the Victoria Cross and the Distinguished Conduct Medal, the MM was the highest decoration for gallantry that could be earned by non-commissioned soldiers. It was awarded to more than 12,000 members of the CEF during the Great War. From Harry and Cindy Abbink, The Military Medal: Canadian Recipients, pp. vii-xiii.
  28. Gaffen, p. 28.
  29. First World War citations were provided by Veterans Affairs Canada; Second World War citations by the Department of National Defence.
  30. Removed
  31. The Indian Hall of Fame was conceived in 1967 by the Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples. Housed in the museum of the Woodland Cultural Centre at Brantford, Ontario, its goal is to honour Indigenous people who have contributed to the advancement of Canada's Indigenous society.
  32. From a February 1991 conversation with the author.
  33. Victor Wheeler, The 50th Battalion in No Man's Land, p. 320.
  34. The Abbinks, p. xiii.
  35. "First World War Indian Hero Almost Forgotten," The Leader-Post, November 11, 1989, p. C10.
  36. Norwest was his father's surname; Louie was his mother's.
  37. Wheeler, p. 289.
  38. The MC was similar to the MM, except that it was reserved for commissioned officers up to the rank of captain and, later, major. It was awarded to at least 2,800 members of the CEF. From Taprell Dorling, Ribbons and Medals, p. 29; and Charles Stewart, Overseas: The Lineages and Insignia of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, p. 166.
  39. D.J. Corrigall, The History of the Twentieth Canadian Battalion (Central Ontario Regiment) Canadian Expeditionary Force, p. 79.
  40. Francis Dowe, The Canadian Military Register of Foreign Awards, p. 25.
  41. The equivalent rank of privates in the infantry, sappers were members of the Royal Canadian Engineers who dug trenches and tunnels, and performed demolition duties.
  42. Stewart, p. 166.
  43. Thomas Raddall, "Sam Glode: Travels of a Micmac," Cape Breton's Magazine, 35 (January 1984), pp. 26-27.
  44. Ibid, p. 26.
  45. Le 22e bataillon later became le Royal 22e Régiment.
  46. Translation of text from Joseph Chaballe, Histoire du 22e Bataillon canadien-français, pp. 327-328.
  47. Woodland Cultural Centre, "Tom Longboat," research file.
  48. Joe Keeper, another Indigenous athlete-turned-soldier and a recipient of the Military Medal, placed first in the one- and three-mile events.
  49. Bill Johnston, "First Canadian Nurse Overseas," The Grand River Sachem, October 19, 1983, p. 15.
  50. Gaffen, p. 79.
  51. The name, Cameron Brant, is included on the tablet.
  52. Department of Indian Affairs, Annual Report, 1918-1919, p. 13.
    • The Second World War
  53. "World War II—1939-1945," AMMSA , 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
  54. Dr. Harold McGill in Department of Mines and Resources, Annual Report, 1939-1940, p. 183. Indian Affairs became a branch of this department in 1936.
  55. Library Archives Canada RG 10, Vol. 6768, file 452-20, part 5.
  56. House of Commons, Debates, April 28, 1942, p. 1960.
  57. Louis Dumont from Fishing Lake, Alberta in Diane Parenteau, "Battles, Friendships from War Remembered by Métis Vet.," Windspeaker, 7, 36 (November 10, 1989), p. 5.
  58. James Brady in Julia Harrison, Métis: People between Two Worlds, p. 115.
  59. James Dempsey in a September 1991 conversation with the author.
  60. "The Dreavers of Mistawasis: A Saga of Service," The Saskatchewan Indian (December 1972), p. 5.
  61. In 1948, Chief Dreaver's son Harvey, a sergeant killed in 1944 while serving in Belgium with the Regina Rifles, was posthumously awarded the Belgian Croix de guerre avec Palme for outstanding contributions toward the liberation of Belgium.
  62. Gaffen, p. 64.
  63. Stanley, In the Face of Danger, p. 347.
  64. Ibid, pp. 245-246.
  65. Martin Ashton, The Canadian Medal Rolls , p. 11.
  66. Ibid, p. 11.
  67. Stanley, In the Face of Danger, p. 269.
  68. McKenzie Porter, "Warrior," Maclean's (September 1, 1952), p. 49.
  69. Bruce Sealey and Peter Van De Vyvere, Manitobans in Profile: Thomas George Prince, p. 26.
  70. Awarded to soldiers of the United States, or friendly forces serving in action against an enemy of the U.S., the Silver Star Medal followed the Distinguished Service Medal in the order of precedence for American medals, ranking sixth overall. From Dowe, p. 219.
  71. Ibid, p. 31.
  72. G.L. Cassidy, Warpath: The Story of the Algonquin Regiment, p. 27.
  73. Nina Burnham in a November 1991 letter to the author.
  74. "Dr. Gilbert C. Monture," Tekawennake, May 12, 1971, p. 1.
  75. Barbara Malloch, Monture's daughter, in a December 1991 conversation with the author.
  76. "Dr. Gilbert C. Monture," Tekawennake, February 8, 1978, p. 15.
  77. Citation provided by Government House.
  78. Dowe, p. 153.
  79. From a December 1991 conversation with the author.
  80. Gaffen, pp. 79 and 131.
  81. Ibid, p. 40; and Dempsey, "The Canadian Indians and World War Two" (unpublished research paper), pp. 6-7.
  82. Raymond Prince in a November 1991 conversation with the author.
  83. Gaffen, p. 40. For two interesting accounts of war brides adapting to reserve life see M. Olga McKenna, Micmac by Choice (Halifax: Formac Publishing Co. Ltd, 1990), and Anne Rosemary Paudash, "I Married an Indian," Maclean's (December 1, 1951).
    • The Korean War
  84. "And to Tomorrow...," AMMSA , 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
  85. Indian Affairs at this time was part of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
  86. The number of references made to Korean War Veterans in Indigenous newspapers and in communications during research supports this view. In a March 1991 letter to the author, Sam Urquhart, President of the Korea Veterans Association of Canada, agreed that 73 seems a low estimate.
  87. Sealey and Van De Vyvere, p. 35.
  88. Formerly called the Distinguished Unit Citation, this decoration is awarded to units of United States armed forces and co-belligerent nations for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy.
  89. Sealey and Van De Vyvere, p. 1.
  90. An able seaman is the navy's equivalent of an army private.
  91. A CPO 2 is the equivalent to a master warrant officer in the army.
  92. The Chief Boatswain's Mate is the NCO who oversees watches, drills and other shipboard routines.
  93. Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) systems detect objects underwater by reflecting or emitting sound.
  94. From a December 1991 letter to the author.
  95. From a May 1991 letter to the author.
  96. From a June 1991 conversation with the author.
    • Conclusion
  97. "And to Tomorrow," AMMSA, 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
  98. Gordon Ahenakew in Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association, We Were There, p. 3.
  99. Andrew George, President of the British Columbia Chapter of the National Indian Veterans Association—a group that has been working on a national survey of Indigenous Veterans—in a March 1991 letter to the author.
    • Looking Back
  100. Diamond Jenness, The Ojibwa Indians of Parry Island, p. 53.
  101. An Ojibwa from Shoal Lake, Ontario, Mr. Redsky is quoted in James Stevens, ed., Great Leader of the Ojibway: Mis-quona-queb, p. 17.
  102. A Métis leader from Alberta, Mr. Brady wrote this text in his war diary, which was published in Murray Dobbin, The One-and-a-Half Men, p. 143.
  103. Mr. Ghostkeeper, a Métis from Vancouver, provided this quotation in February 1990.
  104. Mr. Kelly, a Haida from Vancouver and the son of Peter Kelly, DD, a renowned missionary, teacher and spokesperson for British Columbia Indigenous peoples, provided this quotation in February 1990.
  105. Mr. Moore, a member of the Moose Factory Cree Band in Ontario, provided this quotation in the CBC television program, On the Road Again: A Remembrance Day Special, November 12, 1990.
  106. From a March 1991 letter to the author.
  107. From a June 1991 conversation with the author.
  108. Mrs. Plante is quoted in "Cree Boys Contribution Not Recognized," Kahtou, November 21, 1988, p. 6.
  109. In 1987, Mr. Hill won the Remembrance Day poetry contest sponsored by the Six Nations (Ohsweken) Veterans Association. His poem was published in Tekawennake, October 22, 1987, p. 10., and is reprinted with permission.
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